Drugs of abuse and human placenta.

10:34 EDT 25th October 2014 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Drugs of abuse and human placenta."

Drugs of abuse such as cocaine and amphetamines, when used by pregnant women, exert deleterious effects on the fetus. These drugs produce their effects through inhibition of the serotonin transporter, norepinephrine transporter, and dopamine transporter. The inhibition can occur in the pregnant mother as well as in the fetus. These events contribute to the detrimental effects of these drugs on the fetus. However, the role of placenta, which serves as the link between the pregnant mother and the fetus, in the process remains understudied. It has been assumed that the placenta did not play any direct role in the process except that it allowed the passage of these drugs from maternal circulation into fetal circulation. This was before the discovery that the placenta expresses two of the three monoamine transporters. The serotonin transporter and the norepinephrine transporter are expressed on the maternal-facing side of the syncytiotrophoblast, thus exposed to the inhibitory actions of cocaine and amphetamines if present in maternal blood. Inhibition of these transporters in the placenta could lead to elevation of serotonin and norepinephrine in the intervillous space that may cause uterine contraction and vasoconstriction, resulting in premature delivery, decreased placental blood flow, and intrauterine growth retardation. Thus, the placenta is actually a direct target for these abusable drugs. Since the placental serotonin transporter and norepinephrine transporter are also inhibited by many antidepressants, therapeutic use of these drugs in pregnant women may have similar detrimental effects on placental function and fetal growth and development.

Affiliation

Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Life sciences
ISSN: 1879-0631
Pages: 926-30

Links

PubMed Articles [14950 Associated PubMed Articles listed on BioPortfolio]

The evolving high: New designer drugs of abuse.

Over the past decade, emerging drugs of abuse and synthetic derivatives of more traditional agents have flooded the market. While Europe was the first to experience a surge in the use of drugs such as...

Cleaning up blood samples using a modified "QuEChERS" procedure for the determination of drugs of abuse and benzodiazepines by UPLC-MSMS(☆)

The "QuEChERS" (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) dispersive SPE (dSPE) method is an emerging sample preparation technique that is becoming increasingly popular in the area of multi-res...

Invigorating placental research through the "Human Placenta Project"

Trans-placental passage and anti-inflammatory effects of solithromycin in the human placenta.

Solithromycin is a 4th generation macrolide/fluoroketolide antibiotic that has potential applications in the treatment and prevention of intrauterine and fetal infections in pregnancy; it has also bee...

Simultaneous detection of 93 conventional and emerging drugs of abuse and their metabolites in urine by UHPLC-MS/MS.

Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) are becoming increasingly popular worldwide in recent years, some of which have been reported to cause considerable harm and even fatalities. Currently, simultaneou...

Clinical Trials [1776 Associated Clinical Trials listed on BioPortfolio]

Zinc Therapy in HIV Infected Individuals Who Abuse Drugs

Zinc deficiency is prevalent in HIV infected individuals who abuse drugs. The purpose of this study is to determine if zinc therapy will decrease HIV progression in HIV infected individua...

Human Dopamine Transported Imaging in Cocaine Abuse: 2 - 2

The purpose of this study is to determine the density of DA transporters during prolonged cocaine abuse and during withdrawal from cocaine use. This aim will test the hypothesis that DA t...

Human Dopamine Transported Imaging in Cocaine Abuse: 1 - 1

The purpose of this study is to determine the density of DA transporters during prolonged cocaine abuse and during withdrawal from cocaine use. This aim will test the hypothesis that DA t...

A Multi-Center Study to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Intravenous Infusion of Human Placenta-Derived Cells (PDA001) for the Treatment of Adults With Moderate-to-Severe Crohn's Disease

The primary objective of the study is to estimate the treatment effect of 3 different doses of PDA001 versus placebo in subjects with moderate-to-severe Crohn's Disease. The secondary obje...

Safety and Efficacy Study of Umbilical Cord/Placenta-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Treat Myelodysplastic Syndromes

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from human umbilical cord/placenta at a dose of 1.0E+6 MSC/kg on the subjects for ...

Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A placenta that fails to be expelled after BIRTH of the FETUS. A PLACENTA is retained when the UTERUS fails to contract after the delivery of its content, or when the placenta is abnormally attached to the MYOMETRIUM.

Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.

Drugs which have received FDA approval for human testing but have yet to be approved for commercial marketing. This includes drugs used for treatment while they still are undergoing clinical trials (Treatment IND). The main heading includes drugs under investigation in foreign countries.

Drugs used by veterinarians in the treatment of animal diseases. The veterinarian's pharmacological armamentarium is the counterpart of drugs treating human diseases, with dosage and administration adjusted to the size, weight, disease, and idiosyncrasies of the species. In the United States most drugs are subject to federal regulations with special reference to the safety of drugs and residues in edible animal products.

Abuse of children in a family, institutional, or other setting. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)

Search BioPortfolio:
Loading
Advertisement

Relevant Topics

Obstetrics and gynaecology
Latest News Clinical Trials Research Drugs Reports Corporate
Obstetrics and gynaecology comprises the care of the pregnant woman, her unborn child and the management of diseases specific to women. Most consultants are generalists but the specialty offers a wide range of sub-specialties, which include materno-fetal...

Women's Health
Latest News Clinical Trials Research Drugs Reports Corporate
Women's Health - key topics include breast cancer, pregnancy, menopause, stroke Follow and track Women's Health News on BioPortfolio: Women's Health News RSS Women'...

Advertisement