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Drugs of abuse such as cocaine and amphetamines, when used by pregnant women, exert deleterious effects on the fetus. These drugs produce their effects through inhibition of the serotonin transporter, norepinephrine transporter, and dopamine transporter. The inhibition can occur in the pregnant mother as well as in the fetus. These events contribute to the detrimental effects of these drugs on the fetus. However, the role of placenta, which serves as the link between the pregnant mother and the fetus, in the process remains understudied. It has been assumed that the placenta did not play any direct role in the process except that it allowed the passage of these drugs from maternal circulation into fetal circulation. This was before the discovery that the placenta expresses two of the three monoamine transporters. The serotonin transporter and the norepinephrine transporter are expressed on the maternal-facing side of the syncytiotrophoblast, thus exposed to the inhibitory actions of cocaine and amphetamines if present in maternal blood. Inhibition of these transporters in the placenta could lead to elevation of serotonin and norepinephrine in the intervillous space that may cause uterine contraction and vasoconstriction, resulting in premature delivery, decreased placental blood flow, and intrauterine growth retardation. Thus, the placenta is actually a direct target for these abusable drugs. Since the placental serotonin transporter and norepinephrine transporter are also inhibited by many antidepressants, therapeutic use of these drugs in pregnant women may have similar detrimental effects on placental function and fetal growth and development.
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Name: Life sciences
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A placenta that fails to be expelled after BIRTH of the FETUS. A PLACENTA is retained when the UTERUS fails to contract after the delivery of its content, or when the placenta is abnormally attached to the MYOMETRIUM.
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.
Drugs which have received FDA approval for human testing but have yet to be approved for commercial marketing. This includes drugs used for treatment while they still are undergoing clinical trials (Treatment IND). The main heading includes drugs under investigation in foreign countries.
Drugs used by veterinarians in the treatment of animal diseases. The veterinarian's pharmacological armamentarium is the counterpart of drugs treating human diseases, with dosage and administration adjusted to the size, weight, disease, and idiosyncrasies of the species. In the United States most drugs are subject to federal regulations with special reference to the safety of drugs and residues in edible animal products.
An angiogenic protein belonging to the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor family of growth factors originally isolated and cloned from human placental cDNA library. There are four isoforms of PLGF 1-4 which result from alternative splicing. Placenta Growth Factor is secreted as a glycosylated homodimer which acts as a mitogen for endothelial cells, and its expression is markedly upregulated during hypoxia and in tissue inflammation and cancer.
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