Different effects of clazosentan on consequences of subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.
Summary of "Different effects of clazosentan on consequences of subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats."
One of the major complications after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is angiographic vasospasm in the large arteries at the base of the brain. However, a clinical trial of clazosentan demonstrated a 65% relative risk reduction in angiographic vasospasm but no effect on mortality or clinical outcome, raising questions about the role of angiographic vasospasm played in outcome after SAH. The purpose of this study was to determine if reducing or reversing angiographic vasospasm with clazosentan reduced other secondary complications such as microthromboembolism, loss of long-term potentiation (LTP) and neuronal cell death in a rat model of SAH. SAH in rats was created by injection of 300μl non-heparinized autologous blood into the pre-chiasmatic cistern. Clazosentan, 10mg/kg bolus, or vehicle control was administered 1h after SAH intravenously, followed by a continuous infusion (1mg/kg/h) into the jugular vein using an osmotic pump. Rats treated with clazosentan had less large-artery vasospsam compared to vehicle-treated controls. However, clazosentan did not prevent the formation of microthromboemboli, neuronal cell death and degeneration and loss of LTP, suggesting there is a dissociation between large-artery angiographic vasospasm and other secondary complications of SAH. This result suggests that alleviation of angiographic vasospasm alone may not be sufficient to prevent other secondary complications or that off-target drug effects after systemic administration of clazosentan counteract the beneficial effects on angiographic vasospasm.
Division of Neurosurgery, Labatt Family Centre of Excellence in Brain Injury and Trauma Research, Keenan Research Centre in the Li Ka Shing Knowledge, St Michael's Hospital, Toronto M5B 1W8, Ontario, Canada.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Brain research
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21466789
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2011.03.068
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, Traumatic
Bleeding into the SUBARACHNOID SPACE due to CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Minor hemorrhages may be asymptomatic; moderate to severe hemorrhages may be associated with INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION and VASOSPASM, INTRACRANIAL.
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
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