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Contents Sperm DNA damage has a significant impact on reproductive outcomes. In recent years, the search for optimal molecular markers for the evaluation of semen quality has resulted in the increased focus on sperm nuclear DNA assessment. The primary aim of this article was to review and summarize the effects of freezing-thawing procedure on nuclear DNA integrity of boar spermatozoa. Using different sperm DNA integrity assays, it has been confirmed that the sperm DNA undergoes structural changes during the freezing-thawing process. Evidence has been shown that a significant proportion of frozen-thawed spermatozoa with compromised chromatin integrity was highly susceptible to DNA fragmentation. Moreover, the possible mechanisms responsible for post-thaw sperm DNA damage could be because of cryo-induced oxidative stress and, to a lesser extent, to the activation of an apoptotic-like phenomenon. This review also highlights the ongoing effort employed to develop optimal strategies to reduce sperm DNA damage following freezing-thawing of boar semen.
Department of Animal Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Reproduction in domestic animals = Zuchthygiene
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The quality of SEMEN, an indicator of male fertility, can be determined by semen volume, pH, sperm concentration (SPERM COUNT), total sperm number, sperm viability, sperm vigor (SPERM MOTILITY), normal sperm morphology, ACROSOME integrity, and the concentration of WHITE BLOOD CELLS.
An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).
Interactive processes between the oocyte (OVUM) and the sperm (SPERMATOZOA) including sperm adhesion, ACROSOME REACTION, sperm penetration of the ZONA PELLUCIDA, and events leading to FERTILIZATION.
The structural and functional changes by which SPERMATOZOA become capable of oocyte FERTILIZATION. It normally requires exposing the sperm to the female genital tract for a period of time to bring about increased SPERM MOTILITY and the ACROSOME REACTION before fertilization in the FALLOPIAN TUBES can take place.
The maturing process of SPERMATOZOA after leaving the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. Maturation in SPERM MOTILITY and FERTILITY takes place in the EPIDIDYMIS as the sperm migrate from caput epididymis to cauda epididymis.
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