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Fluconazole is a recommended treatment option for the treatment of invasive candidiasis. Fluconazole is active against most pathogenic Candida spp. except C. kruzei and C. glabrata. Fluconazole is orally well absorbed. Its volume of distribution is reported to be 0.7-1.0 L/kg and it is weakly bound to plasma proteins. The majority of fluconazole dose is excreted via the kidneys. Usually, fluconazole pharmacokinetics display moderate inter-individual variability. However, in presence of renal dysfunction or in pediatrics patients, fluconazole pharmacokinetics might be difficult to predict. Concentration-efficacy relationships are demonstrated whereas concentration-toxicity relationships are sparse. As a consequence, therapeutic drug monitoring is not routinely recommended but can be useful in certain situations.
Service de Toxicologie et Pharmacocinétique, CHU Poitiers, Poitiers, France.
This article was published in the following journal.
Routine therapeutic drug monitoring of voriconazole appears to be beneficial. This study investigated the therapeutic drug monitoring practices in intensive care to derive possible recommendations for...
Oral fluid (OF) is an interesting alternative for conventional blood testing in therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). OF can be used for screening but its value for quantification has to be established.
Pentobarbital is used for management of intractable seizures and for reducing elevated intracranial pressure. Dosing of pentobarbital can be aided by therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). There is no com...
Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) is the treatment of choice for infections caused by Pneumocystis jiroveci, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Nocardia species, but the utility of therapeutic dr...
Immunosuppressive drug level monitoring and serum creatinine are widely used for kidney transplantation (KT) monitoring. Monitoring of drug level is not the direct measurement of the immune response w...
Fluconazole is the first-line agent in the treatment of invasive candidiasis. Studies showed inappropriate drug exposure causes high mortality in critically ill patients. Under-dosing and ...
The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of fluconazole on the pharmacokinetics of K 877 in healthy adult subjects.
To evaluate the use of fluconazole as (1) induction therapy in histoplasmosis, (2) maintenance therapy to prevent relapse of histoplasmosis. Histoplasmosis is a serious opportunistic infe...
The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of concomitant administration with fluconazole, itraconazole, and rifampin on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of a single 20-mg dose of avat...
The pharmacokinetics of fluconazole are expected to be different in ICU patients compared to non-ICU patients. The investigators will determine fluconazole and free fluconazole concentrati...
Measurable biological parameters that serve for drug development, safety and dosing (DRUG MONITORING).
Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment or workplace by measuring the amounts of these toxicants in the bodies of people and animals in that environment, among other methods. It also includes the measurement of ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE. Levels in humans and animals are used as indicators of toxic levels of undesirable chemicals.
Physiologic or biochemical monitoring of the fetus. It is usually done during LABOR, OBSTETRIC and may be performed in conjunction with the monitoring of uterine activity. It may also be performed prenatally as when the mother is undergoing surgery.
The process of observing, recording, or detecting the effects of a chemical substance administered to an individual therapeutically or diagnostically.
Clinical Approvals Clinical Trials Drug Approvals Drug Delivery Drug Discovery Generics Drugs Prescription Drugs In the fields of medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology, drug discovery is the process by which drugs are dis...
Blood is a specialized bodily fluid that delivers necessary substances to the body's cells (in animals) – such as nutrients and oxygen – and transports waste products away from those same cells. In vertebrates, it is composed of blo...