Bone mineral density in Klinefelter syndrome is reduced and primarily determined by muscle strength and resorptive markers, but not directly by testosterone.
Summary of "Bone mineral density in Klinefelter syndrome is reduced and primarily determined by muscle strength and resorptive markers, but not directly by testosterone."
Klinefelter syndrome (KS) patients have lower bone mineral density (BMD) at the spine, hip and forearm compared to healthy subjects, but frank osteoporosis is not common. Muscle strength and bone markers predicted BMD but KS itself and serum testosterone did not. Low vitamin D and high PTH were frequent among KS.
The long-term consequence of KS on bone health is not well described. The objective of this study is to investigate the regional BMD and its determinants in KS.
This is a cross-sectional study. BMD at the spine, hip and forearm are measured by DXA and correlated to biochemical markers of bone turnover, vitamin D metabolites, PTH, sex hormones, growth factors as well as muscle strength and anthropometric measures. The setting is at a university clinical research centre. The study involves 70 adult KS patients and 71 age-matched healthy subjects.
In KS, BMD was universally lowered in all regions. Markers of bone formation or bone resorption were not altered in KS, but 25-OH-Dvitamin was lower (55 vs. 82 nmol/L, p < 0.0001) than in healthy subjects. Significantly more KS patients had low BMD (Z-scores below -2) at the forearm (15 KS vs. two healthy subjects, p = 0.001) but not at the spine or hip. Muscle strength (bicep and quadriceps) was lower among KS patients. Multivariate analysis revealed that muscle strength, treatment with testosterone (ever/never), age at diagnosis, SHBG, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and 1CTP were all independent predictors of BMD, but androgens was not.
KS patients had lower BMD at the spine, hip and forearm compared to age-matched healthy subjects, but frank osteoporosis was not common. Muscle strength, previous history of testosterone treatment, age at diagnosis and bone markers were predictors of BMD, but testosterone was not. Signs of secondary hyperparathyroidism were present among KS. Dietary intake of vitamin D or sun exposure may be lower in KS patients.
Department of Clinical Genetics, Vejle Hospital, DK-7100, Vejle, Denmark.
This article was published in the following journal.
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20658127
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00198-010-1354-7
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Bone Demineralization, Pathologic
Decrease, loss, or removal of the mineral constituents of bones. Temporary loss of bone mineral content is especially associated with space flight, weightlessness, and extended immobilization. OSTEOPOROSIS is permanent, includes reduction of total bone mass, and is associated with increased rate of fractures. CALCIFICATION, PHYSIOLOGIC is the process of bone remineralizing. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed; Nicogossian, Space Physiology and Medicine, 2d ed, pp327-33)
Rare autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by delayed closing of CRANIAL SUTURES, short stature, ACRO-OSTEOLYSIS of distal phalanges, dental and MAXILLOFACIAL ABNORMALITIES and an increase in bone density that results in frequent BONE FRACTURES. It is associated with BONE RESORPTION defect due to mutations in the lysosomal cysteine protease CATHEPSIN K.
Bone Density Conservation Agents
Agents that inhibit BONE RESORPTION and/or favor BONE MINERALIZATION and BONE REGENERATION. They are used to heal BONE FRACTURES and to treat METABOLIC BONE DISEASES.
Bone Demineralization Technique
Removal of mineral constituents or salts from bone or bone tissue. Demineralization is used as a method of studying bone strength and bone chemistry.
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