Drug metabolism of CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP2D6 substrates in pigs and humans.
Summary of "Drug metabolism of CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP2D6 substrates in pigs and humans."
Pigs are becoming increasingly used as a test animal both in pharmacological and toxicological assessment of new drug compounds. For interspecies comparisons and predictions it is important to characterize the expression and function of membrane transport and enzymatic proteins in pigs, particularly at a mechanistic level which will make extrapolation of observation between pig and man to be made with more confidence. The major objective of this report was to increase the integrative knowledge of drug metabolism in pigs and to compare with corresponding data from human liver microsomes. This was done by using human substrates of CYP3A4 (verapamil and testosterone), CYP2C9 (diclofenac) and CYP2D6 (dextromethorphan). In addition, the mRNA expression of important drug metabolizing enzymes and carrier-mediated transporters were assessed in intestine and liver tissues from pigs. It was shown that CYP3A4 activity is quantitatively comparable between the two species but data suggest that qualitative differences may exist. Verapamil showed similar metabolism pattern as in humans and the CYP3A4 inhibitor ketoconazole was able to inhibit the depletion of both R- and S-verapamil. A correlation between individual pig CYP3A mRNA expression and in vivo hepatic extraction ratio was established which indicates that CYP3A is the major determinant factor in both pigs and humans. However, investigations of the metabolism of testosterone resulted in qualitative different metabolite pattern between pigs and humans. The metabolism of diclofenac was very low in pig liver microsomes and did not correlate to corresponding activity in human liver microsomes. In contrast dextromethorphan exhibited a very extensive and rapid metabolism in pig liver microsomes compared to human data. Together with previously determined gene expression data it confirms that CYP2D6 substrates will be very rapidly metabolized in pigs. The mRNA data increased the knowledge of the interindividual variability and the relative expression of different enzymes and transporters in pig intestine and liver. In conclusion, this study has increased the understanding of similarities and differences between pig and human biotransformation of drugs by providing new data for four different model compounds.
Department of Pharmacy, Uppsala University, Box 580, SE-751 23 Uppsala, Sweden.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: European journal of pharmaceutical sciences : official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21447389
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejps.2011.03.008
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
A species of RHODOCOCCUS found in soil, herbivore dung, and in the intestinal tract of cows, horses, sheep, and pigs. It causes bronchopneumonia in foals and can be responsible for infection in humans compromised by immunosuppressive drug therapy, lymphoma, or AIDS.
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
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