Drug Therapies for Tardive Dyskinesia: Part 2.
Summary of "Drug Therapies for Tardive Dyskinesia: Part 2."
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a serious complication associated with the long-term use of dopamine receptor-blocking drugs. No drugs are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treating TD. A number of drugs appear to have some benefit for its treatment, including branched-chain amino acids, piracetam (Nootropil(®), Nootrop(®), Nootropyl(®)), clonazepam (Klonopin(®)), levetiracetam (Keppra(®)), propranolol (Inderal(®)), and clonidine (Catapres(®)), and they would be clinically reasonable to try. Gabapentin (Neurontin(®) and others) has a good safety profile and would be appropriate to consider, although no controlled trials confirm its efficacy. The efficacy of ginkgo biloba should be balanced against its safety concerns. Essential fatty acids have not been shown to be effective. Antioxidant therapies, including vitamin E, melatonin, and vitamin B(6), could conceivably be used together with other drug therapies for the treatment of TD.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of psychosocial nursing and mental health services
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21667885
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/02793695-20110602-02
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Abnormal movements, including HYPERKINESIS; HYPOKINESIA; TREMOR; and DYSTONIA, associated with the use of certain medications or drugs. Muscles of the face, trunk, neck, and extremities are most commonly affected. Tardive dyskinesia refers to abnormal hyperkinetic movements of the muscles of the face, tongue, and neck associated with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1199)
A furancarbonitrile that is one of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS used as an antidepressant. The drug is also effective in reducing ethanol uptake in alcoholics and is used in depressed patients who also suffer from tardive dyskinesia in preference to tricyclic antidepressants, which aggravate this condition.
Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders. Most of these act centrally on dopaminergic or cholinergic systems. Among the most important clinically are those used for the treatment of Parkinson disease (ANTIPARKINSON AGENTS) and those for the tardive dyskinesias.
The science concerned with the benefit and risk of drugs used in populations and the analysis of the outcomes of drug therapies. Pharmacoepidemiologic data come from both clinical trials and epidemiological studies with emphasis on methods for the detection and evaluation of drug-related adverse effects, assessment of risk vs benefit ratios in drug therapy, patterns of drug utilization, the cost-effectiveness of specific drugs, methodology of postmarketing surveillance, and the relation between pharmacoepidemiology and the formulation and interpretation of regulatory guidelines. (Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 1992;1(1); J Pharmacoepidemiol 1990;1(1))
Therapeutic practices which are not currently considered an integral part of conventional allopathic medical practice. They may lack biomedical explanations but as they become better researched some (PHYSICAL THERAPY MODALITIES; DIET; ACUPUNCTURE) become widely accepted whereas others (humors, radium therapy) quietly fade away, yet are important historical footnotes. Therapies are termed as Complementary when used in addition to conventional treatments and as Alternative when used instead of conventional treatment.
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