Host factors involved in retroviral budding and release.
Summary of "Host factors involved in retroviral budding and release."
The plasma membrane is the final barrier that enveloped viruses must cross during their egress from the infected cell. Here, we review recent insights into the cell biology of retroviral assembly and release; these insights have driven a new understanding of the host proteins, such as the ESCRT machinery, that are used by retroviruses to promote their final separation from the host cell. We also review antiviral host factors such as tetherin, which can directly inhibit the release of retroviral particles. These studies have illuminated the role of the lipid bilayer as the unexpected target for virus restriction by the innate immune response.
Department of Infectious Diseases, Second Floor Borough Wing, Guy's Hospital, London, SE1 9RT, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Nature reviews. Microbiology
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21677686
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro2596
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Release of a virus from the host cell following VIRUS ASSEMBLY and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, EXOCYTOSIS, or budding through the plasma membrane.
Peptide Termination Factors
Proteins that are involved in the peptide chain termination reaction (PEPTIDE CHAIN TERMINATION, TRANSLATIONAL) on RIBOSOMES. They include codon-specific class-I release factors, which recognize stop signals (TERMINATOR CODON) in the MESSENGER RNA; and codon-nonspecific class-II release factors.
A general term for the complex phenomena involved in allo- and xenograft rejection by a host and graft vs host reaction. Although the reactions involved in transplantation immunology are primarily thymus-dependent phenomena of cellular immunity, humoral factors also play a part in late rejection.
Host-derived Cellular Factors
A broad category of endogenous cellular factors that are used by VIRUSES for essential functions such as VIRUS REPLICATION. Many host-derived factors play normal cellular roles in non-infected cells.
Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex
A multifactorial disease of CATTLE resulting from complex interactions between environmental factors, host factors, and pathogens. The environmental factors act as stressors adversely affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM and other host defenses and enhancing transmission of infecting agents.
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