Ghrelin in obesity and endocrine diseases.
Summary of "Ghrelin in obesity and endocrine diseases."
Ghrelin shows orexigenic effect through its action on the hypothalamic appetite-regulating pathways, while in the periphery ghrelin increases adipose tissue accumulation and has a diabetogenic effect on the liver and pancreas. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been suggested as one of the mediators of ghrelin's effects. Plasma ghrelin levels are dependent on body mass index as well as food intake patterns. Ghrelin levels are in general reduced in obese individuals and in subjects with insulin resistance. In contrast to other forms of obesity, patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) display high levels of ghrelin, reduced visceral adiposity and relative hypoinsulinemia. Relationships between obesity and common genomic variants of GHRL and GHS-R genes have been studied. Ghrelin may have a role in the weight-reducing effect of bariatric surgery; however, this is a much debated issue. Altered ghrelin levels have also been observed in Cushing's syndrome and thyroid disease probably due to the secondary insulin resistance in these subjects.
Centre for Endocrinology, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London EC1M 6BQ, UK.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Molecular and cellular endocrinology
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21345363
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2011.02.011
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.
Transmembrane proteins that recognize and bind GHRELIN, a potent stimulator of GROWTH HORMONE secretion and food intake in mammals. Ghrelin receptors are found in the pituitary and HYPOTHALAMUS. They belong to the family of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS.
Endocrine System Diseases
Pathological processes of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, and diseases resulting from abnormal level of available HORMONES.
Bone Diseases, Endocrine
Diseases of the bones related to hyperfunction or hypofunction of the endocrine glands.
Diagnostic Techniques, Endocrine
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the endocrine glands or demonstration of their physiological processes.
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