Do patients at risk of sleep apnea have an increased risk of cardio-respiratory complications during endoscopy procedures?
Summary of "Do patients at risk of sleep apnea have an increased risk of cardio-respiratory complications during endoscopy procedures?"
Patients with sleep apnea (OSA) have an increased risk of perioperative complications.
The purpose of this study is to assess whether OSA increases the risk of cardio-respiratory complications in patients undergoing endoscopic procedures with conscious sedation.
A prospective study over a 7-month period was performed. All patients undergoing upper, lower, or combined endoscopy were asked to fill in the Berlin questionnaire. The questionnaire was scored, and patients were classified as high or low risk for sleep apnea based on the suggested scoring criteria. Patients who had previously undergone a sleep study were excluded. Demographics and co-morbidities were identified from the electronic medical record. Procedure type, amount of sedation, and minor and major complications were identified from the endoscopy flow sheet. The minor complications were defined as hypertension, hypotension, bradycardia, tachycardia, hypoxemia, and bradypnea (respiratory rate <8 breaths/min). Major complications included chest pain, arrhythmia, altered mental status, respiratory distress, and a minor complication that required a significant intervention, such as use of a reversal agent, atropine, up-titration of oxygen for hypoxemia, or prolonged observation.
Procedures were performed in 904 patients: colonoscopies, 68.0%; upper endoscopies, 22.8%; and combined procedures, 9.2%. Five hundred fifty-three patients were identified as low risk (61.2%), and 351 were identified as high risk (38.8%). The mean age was 59.5 ± 10.5 years, mean body mass index was 28.9 ± 6.6, mean neck circumference was 16.2 ± 6.3 in., and 91.4% were males. The median Charlson co-morbidity index was 1 (25-75% percentage range 0-2). All patients received midazolam and fentanyl during endoscopy. The median and 25-75% range for midazolam and fentanyl dosages were 5 mg, 4-6 mg and 100 μg, 75-125 μg, respectively. Minor complications were observed in 10.56% of low-risk patients and 10.63% of high-risk patients (p = not significant (NS); odds ratio, 1.01; 95% confidence interval 0.65-1.56). Major complications were observed in 3.25% of low-risk patients and 1.9% of high-risk patients (p = ns; odds ratio, 0.6; 95% confidence interval 0.26-1.46).
For patients undergoing endoscopy procedures under conscious sedation, the presence of OSA does not clearly increase the risk of cardiopulmonary complications.
Western New York Veteran Affairs Healthcare System, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Sleep & breathing = Schlaf & Atmung
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21706289
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11325-011-0546-5
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Sleep Apnea, Central
A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration. This condition may be idiopathic (primary) or associated with lower brain stem lesions; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (LUNG DISEASES, OBSTRUCTIVE); HEART FAILURE, CONGESTIVE; medication effect; and other conditions. Sleep maintenance is impaired, resulting in daytime hypersomnolence. Primary central sleep apnea is frequently associated with obstructive sleep apnea. When both forms are present the condition is referred to as mixed sleep apnea (see SLEEP APNEA SYNDROMES). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395; Neurol Clin 1996;14(3):611-28)
Sleep Apnea Syndromes
Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.
Risk Reduction Behavior
Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.
Sleep Disorders, Intrinsic
Dyssomnias (i.e., insomnias or hypersomnias) associated with dysfunction of internal sleep mechanisms or secondary to a sleep-related medical disorder (e.g., sleep apnea, post-traumatic sleep disorders, etc.). (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
The process of minimizing risk to an organization by developing systems to identify and analyze potential hazards to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences, and by attempting to handle events and incidents which do occur in such a manner that their effect and cost are minimized. Effective risk management has its greatest benefits in application to insurance in order to avert or minimize financial liability. (From Slee & Slee: Health care terms, 2d ed)
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