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Aim: Persuasive marketing techniques, such as promotional characters, influence children's food preferences and requests for foods. The aim of this research was to describe the techniques used to market unhealthy foods and beverages to children on Sydney free-to-air television. Methods: Marketing techniques designed to appeal to children were identified from international literature and summarised into a systematic coding tool. Using this tool, the marketing techniques used in a random sample of 100 unique food advertisements, broadcasted on Sydney free-to-air television, were coded. Frequency of marketing techniques was analysed overall and for use in advertisements marketing unhealthy foods, emotionally or verbally appealing to parents, or featuring child actors. Results: Advertisers' use of persuasive techniques generally did not differ by type of food advertised. Marketing techniques with greater prominence in unhealthy food advertising were palatability (54% of unhealthy food advertisements), convenience (52%), fantasy/imagination (28%), fun/happiness (17%) and cartoon characters (9%). Advertisements emotionally appealing to parents (24%) were significantly more likely to make general health or nutrition statements (38% vs. 17%), and appealed to children concurrently through fun/happiness and fantasy/imagination appeals. Children were depicted in advertisements as eating with friends or family, situated within the home and frequently snacking on less healthy foods. Conclusions: Food and beverage advertisers use a range of visual, audio and emotive techniques to appeal to children and their parents that do not discriminate by the type of food advertised. The range and complexity of these techniques complicate the restriction of their use in food advertising to children.
Prevention Research Collaboration, University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales, Australia.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of paediatrics and child health
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MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease. Included are such techniques as IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION of chromosomes for CYTOGENETIC ANALYSIS; OLIGONUCLEOTIDE ARRAY SEQUENCE ANALYSIS of gene expression patterns in disease states; identification of pathogenic organisms by analysis of species specific DNA sequences; and detection of mutations with POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
Foods and beverages prepared for use to meet specific needs such as infant foods.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.
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