Intravenous Diazepam, Midazolam and Lorazepam in Acute Seizure Control.
Summary of "Intravenous Diazepam, Midazolam and Lorazepam in Acute Seizure Control."
To evaluate the safety and efficacy of three benzodiazepine drugs: Lorazepam, Midazolam and Diazepam, when given parenterally in the control of acute seizure.
One hundred and twenty children of either sex in the age group 6 month to 14 years brought convulsing to the pediatric emergency services, were enrolled in the study. These were randomised to three equal groups of 40 patients each; Group A-received diazepam, Group B-received midazolam, Group C-received lorazepam. End of seizure episode (clinically) was defined as cessation of visible epileptic phenomenon or return of purposeful response to external stimuli within 15 min of drug administration. A stopwatch was used to measure various time intervals accurately. The patient's vitals were monitored and recorded in a predesigned performa. The primary outcome was the time to seizure cessation and secondary outcome was the side effects of the drugs. Data obtained was analysed statistically using student's t-test and chi-square test.
Mean duration to clinical seizure cessation was comparable among the three groups. For diazepam group it was 84.94 ± 38.56 s, for midazolam group it was 92.69 ± 25.97 s, for lorazepam group it was 91.12 ± 23.58 s. Number of patients with any abnormality in seizure cessation were significantly higher in diazepam group [11/40 (27.5%)] when compared to the midazolam [4/40 (10%)] and lorazepam group [2/40 (5%)]. Number of patients requiring 2nd dose to control seizures was significantly higher [4/40 (10%)] in diazepam group when compared to lorazepam group [0/40 (0%)] but diazepam and midazolam and midazolam and lorazepam were comparable in this aspect.All the three drugs were comparable in terms of side effects except excessive somnolence which was significantly higher in diazepam group.
All the three groups were comparable in terms of time to clinical seizure cessation, seizure recurrence and uncontrolled seizures after drug administration. However, number of patients requiring second dose to control seizures were significantly higher in diazepam group when compared to lorazepam group. Excessive somnolence and sedation occurred more frequently with diazepam.
Departments of Pediatrics, Pt. B.D.Sharma PGIMS, University of Health Sciences Rohtak, 6J/8, Medical Enclave, Rohtak, 124001, Haryana, India, email@example.com.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Indian journal of pediatrics
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21713599
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12098-011-0505-y
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A pharmaceutical agent that displays activity as a central nervous system and respiratory stimulant. It is considered a non-competitive GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID antagonist. Pentylenetetrazole has been used experimentally to study seizure phenomenon and to identify pharmaceuticals that may control seizure susceptibility.
An intermediate in the metabolism of DIAZEPAM to OXAZEPAM. It may have actions similar to those of diazepam.
Conditions characterized by recurrent paroxysmal neuronal discharges which arise from a focal region of the brain. Partial seizures are divided into simple and complex, depending on whether consciousness is unaltered (simple partial seizure) or disturbed (complex partial seizure). Both types may feature a wide variety of motor, sensory, and autonomic symptoms. Partial seizures may be classified by associated clinical features or anatomic location of the seizure focus. A secondary generalized seizure refers to a partial seizure that spreads to involve the brain diffusely. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp317)
A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)
Diazepam Binding Inhibitor
An 86-amino acid polypeptide, found in central and peripheral tissues, that displaces diazepam from the benzodiazepine recognition site on the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (RECEPTORS, GABA). It also binds medium- and long-chain acyl-CoA esters and serves as an acyl-CoA transporter. This peptide regulates lipid metabolism.
Nakken KO, Lossius MI. Buccal midazolam or rectal diazepam for treatment of residential adult patients with serial seizure or status epilepticus. Acta Neurol Scand: DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2010.01474...
High-dose Busulfan in combination chemotherapy has been used commonly for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. It crosses the blood-brain barrier and could cause seizure. Benzodiazepines have been...
BACKGROUND: In the UK, two treatment options are used for acute epileptic seizures in the community-rectal diazepam and unlicensed buccal midazolam. In practice, the former is rarely used, with unlice...
Aims: To assess the management of epileptic seizures and status epilepticus in adult patients at Auckland City Hospital emergency department. This information will form the basis of future seizure...
OBJECTIVE: To compare intranasal midazolam, using a Mucosal Atomization Device (IN-MMAD), with rectal diazepam (RD) for the home treatment of seizures in children with epilepsy. DESIGN: Prospective ra...
The investigators will conduct a randomized controlled trial comparing the use of nasal midazolam, using a Mucosal Atomization Devise, to rectal diazepam for the treatment of acute seizure...
Aims : - exploring lorazepam (0.038 mg/kg) effects, after a single oral intake, in healthy volunteers, on the neural correlates of encoding and retrieval of information during a...
The overarching aim of STILL is assessment of IV LEV in the management of seizures in the ED setting. The main study endpoints are considered in the two patient groups of interest (SE and...
Status epilepticus (SE) is a common pediatric emergency which is potentially life-threatening and requires rapid termination. Early and effective treatment is essential to prevent the morb...
This study will compare the effects of an acute dose of lorazepam to a placebo in elderly patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).