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Placental dysfunction is a term to describe suboptimal placental function leading to variations in the fetal supply of all its necessary required nutrients as well as the disruption in the cleansing of fetal catabolic products. The dysfunctional placenta may interrupt the manufacturing of other essential factors involved in pregnancy conservation, can compromise the fetal appropriate, atraumatic and sterile medium to grow, the immunologic shield from maternal antibodies and the normal amniotic fluid levels. Placental dysfunction can lead to a group of disorders representing a diverse and important category of pathological processes conducting to fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms by which these inflammatory processes cause death and disability are diverse and can be separated into four distinct classes: first, placental damage with loss of function; second, induction of premature labor; third, release of inflammatory mediators; fourth, transplacental infection. Several conditions have been associated with placental dysfunction: IUGR, hypertension, hypoxic-ischemic injury, preterm labor, and fetal death.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Boonshoft School of Medicine, Wright State University, Dayton, OH, USA - email@example.com.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Minerva ginecologica
Placental syndromes (PS) are characterized by endothelial dysfunction complicating placental dysfunction. Possible markers for endothelial dysfunction and amount of trophoblast are fibronectin and pla...
It is generally agreed that placental pathology accounts for the majority of perinatal morbidity and mortality. If a placental prodrome could be diagnosed in vivo, risk for maternal or fetal complicat...
Abnormalities of placental development and function are known to underlie many pathologies of pregnancy, including spontaneous preterm birth, fetal growth restriction, and preeclampsia. A growing body...
Abnormal levels of maternal serum analytes have been associated with fetal growth restriction (FGR) and preeclampsia secondary to placental vascular dysfunction. Accurately identifying the FGR fetuses...
Preeclampsia is a leading cause of maternal death. Its cause is still debated but there is general agreement that the placenta plays a central role. Perhaps the most commonly proposed contributors to ...
The aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to investigate the relationship between placental thickness during the second and third trimesters and placental and birth weights.
The present study will be undertaken to establish whether genetic variations of PAR1 could be involved in the occurrence of any of the "placental syndromes" of preterm delivery, preeclamps...
The purpose of this study is to test the application of newly generated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocols for the assessment of placental perfusion in human subjects. The primary ...
To evaluate the feasibility of functional MRI method developed in an animal model and to construct normal reference ranges for in vivo placental perfusion using functional MRI. This will b...
It is unknown whether beta cell dysfunction and insulin resistance in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is representative of a chronic maternal defect, unmasked by pregnancy, or whether ...
A polypeptide hormone of approximately 25 kDa that is produced by the SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS of the PLACENTA, also known as chorionic somatomammotropin. It has both GROWTH HORMONE and PROLACTIN activities on growth, lactation, and luteal steroid production. In women, placental lactogen secretion begins soon after implantation and increases to 1 g or more a day in late pregnancy. Placental lactogen is also an insulin antagonist.
Methods used for the assessment of placental function.
Extracts prepared from placental tissue; they may contain specific but uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific activities.
Hormones produced by the placenta include CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN as well as steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE), and neuropeptide hormones similar to those found in the hypothalamus (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES).
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