Steroid-responsive encephalopathy subsequently associated with Alzheimer disease pathology: A case series.
Summary of "Steroid-responsive encephalopathy subsequently associated with Alzheimer disease pathology: A case series."
Background: Steroid-responsive encephalopathies can be considered vasculitic or non-vasculitic. Clinicopathological studies of non-vasculitic steroid-responsive encephalopathy are unusual, but can explain the range of diagnoses consistent with a steroid-responsive presentation in life. Objective: To extend the range of clinical features and pathological findings consistent with steroid-responsive encephalopathy. Design, methods, and patients: A clinicopathological case series of four patients (two women, ages 54-71 years) with steroid-responsive encephalopathy followed at this institution until the time of death. Results: Clinical features were suggestive of Creutzfeld-Jakob disease (CJD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and parkinsonism, but pathological examination revealed only Alzheimer's disease-related findings without evidence of Lewy bodies or prion disease in all cases. All patients demonstrated marked, sustained improvement following steroid treatment, based on clinical, magnetic resonance imaging, and/or electroencephalogram studies. Alzheimer's disease was not diagnosed in life due to the atypical clinical features, lack of hippocampal atrophy on brain imaging, and a dramatic symptomatic response to steroids. Conclusions: Steroid-responsive encephalopathy is the clinical presentation of some patients with Alzheimer's disease-related pathology at autopsy, and can be consistent with the clinical diagnoses of parkinsonism, DLB, or CJD disease in life.
a Department of Neurology , Johns Hopkins University , Baltimore , MD , USA.
This article was published in the following journal.
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21714739
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13554794.2010.547503
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Abnormal structures located chiefly in distal dendrites and, along with NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES and SENILE PLAQUES, constitute the three morphological hallmarks of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. Neuropil threads are made up of straight and paired helical filaments which consist of abnormally phosphorylated microtubule-associated tau proteins. It has been suggested that the threads have a major role in the cognitive impairment seen in Alzheimer disease.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat ALZHEIMER DISEASE.
Aphasia, Primary Progressive
A progressive form of dementia characterized by the global loss of language abilities and initial preservation of other cognitive functions. Fluent and nonfluent subtypes have been described. Eventually a pattern of global cognitive dysfunction, similar to ALZHEIMER DISEASE, emerges. Pathologically, there are no Alzheimer or PICK DISEASE like changes, however, spongiform changes of cortical layers II and III are present in the TEMPORAL LOBE and FRONTAL LOBE. (From Brain 1998 Jan;121(Pt 1):115-26)
Proteins found usually in the cytoplasm or nucleus that specifically bind steroid hormones and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. The steroid receptor-steroid hormone complex regulates the transcription of specific genes.
A rare transmissible encephalopathy most prevalent between the ages of 50 and 70 years. Affected individuals may present with sleep disturbances, personality changes, ATAXIA; APHASIA, visual loss, weakness, muscle atrophy, MYOCLONUS, progressive dementia, and death within one year of disease onset. A familial form exhibiting autosomal dominant inheritance and a new variant CJD (potentially associated with ENCEPHALOPATHY, BOVINE SPONGIFORM) have been described. Pathological features include prominent cerebellar and cerebral cortical spongiform degeneration and the presence of PRIONS. (From N Engl J Med, 1998 Dec 31;339(27))
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