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An overview of recent transition metal-catalyzed syntheses of pyrroles and carbazoles is presented. The focus is on methods which have been applied to the preparation of biologically active naturally occurring pyrrole and carbazole alkaloids. For pyrroles, special attention is paid to silver(I)-catalyzed cyclization reactions. For carbazoles, iron(0)-mediated and palladium(0/II)-catalyzed cyclization reactions are highlighted and their broad range of applications is discussed.
Department Chemie, Technische Universität Dresden, Bergstraße 66, 01069, Dresden, Germany.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Topics in current chemistry
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Alkaloids originally isolated from the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea (Hypocreaceae). They include compounds that are structurally related to ergoline (ERGOLINES) and ergotamine (ERGOTAMINES). Many of the ergot alkaloids act as alpha-adrenergic antagonists.
Tetrahydroisoquinolinol alkaloids in both dextro and levo forms, originally found in SALSOLA plants.
Alkaloids found in OPIUM from PAPAVER that induce analgesic and narcotic effects by action upon OPIOID RECEPTORS.
Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Alkaloids, mainly tropanes, elaborated by plants of the family Solanaceae, including Atropa, Hyoscyamus, Mandragora, Nicotiana, Solanum, etc. Some act as cholinergic antagonists; most are very toxic; many are used medicinally.