Is methotrexate nephrotoxic? : Dose-dependency, comorbidities and comedication.
Summary of "Is methotrexate nephrotoxic? : Dose-dependency, comorbidities and comedication."
Methotrexate (MTX) in low-doses is an important component of anti-inflammatory therapy of rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory joint diseases. In contrast to high-dose administration of MTX in oncology, which can lead to direct tubulus toxicity and subsequent renal failure, renal side-effects are a rare exception for low-dose MTX. The biggest problem under low-dose MTX is that an already limited renal function due to comorbidities or an increasing, sometimes clinically insufficiently monitored renal insufficiency due to comedications, such as non-steroidal antirheumatics (NSAR) and antibiotics, leads to a reduced excretion of MTX and therefore to an accumulation in serum. This is primarily accompanied by gastrointestinal mucositis and bone marrow depression. For this reason low-dose MTX should never be administered once the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is less than <30 ml/min and only 50% of the original dosage should be administered if the GFR is between 30 and 60 ml/min.
Division of Nephrology, University of Virginia Health System, 800133, 22908, Charlottesville, USA, email@example.com.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Zeitschrift fur Rheumatologie
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21735288
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00393-011-0830-6
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Lethal Dose 50
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
Maximum Tolerated Dose
The highest dose of a biologically active agent given during a chronic study that will not reduce longevity from effects other than carcinogenicity. (from Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)
Administration of the total dose of radiation (RADIATION DOSAGE) in parts, at timed intervals.
Radiotherapy where there is improved dose homogeneity within the tumor and reduced dosage to uninvolved structures. The precise shaping of dose distribution is achieved via the use of computer-controlled multileaf collimators.
Dose-response Relationship, Immunologic
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
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