Detection and Monitoring of Vasospasm and Delayed Cerebral Ischemia: A Review and Assessment of the Literature.
Summary of "Detection and Monitoring of Vasospasm and Delayed Cerebral Ischemia: A Review and Assessment of the Literature."
Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage can be evaluated using clinical assessment, non-invasive and invasive techniques. An electronic literature search was conducted on English-language articles investigating DCI in human subjects with subarachnoid hemorrhage. A total of 31 relevant papers were identified evaluating the role of clinical assessment, transcranial Doppler, computed tomographic angiography, and computed tomographic perfusion. Clinical assessment by bedside evaluations is limited, especially in patients initially in poorer clinical condition or who are receiving sedative medication for whom deterioration may be more difficult to identify. Transcranial Doppler is a useful screening tool for middle cerebral artery vasospasm, with less utility in evaluating other intracranial vessels. Computed tomographic angiography correlates well with digital subtraction angiography. Computed tomographic perfusion may help predict DCI when used early or identify DCI when used later.
Department of Neurological Surgery and Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S. Euclid Avenue, Campus Box 8057, St. Louis, MO, 63110, USA.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Neurocritical care
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21748499
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12028-011-9594-8
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)
Constriction of arteries in the SKULL due to sudden, sharp, and often persistent smooth muscle contraction in blood vessels. Intracranial vasospasm results in reduced vessel lumen caliber, restricted blood flow to the brain, and BRAIN ISCHEMIA that may lead to hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HYPOXIA-ISCHEMIA, BRAIN).
Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy
A heterogeneous group of sporadic or familial disorders characterized by AMYLOID deposits in the walls of small and medium sized blood vessels of CEREBRAL CORTEX and MENINGES. Clinical features include multiple, small lobar CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; cerebral ischemia (BRAIN ISCHEMIA); and CEREBRAL INFARCTION. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is unrelated to generalized AMYLOIDOSIS. Amyloidogenic peptides in this condition are nearly always the same ones found in ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (from Kumar: Robbins and Cotran: Pathologic Basis of Disease, 7th ed., 2005)
Softening or loss of brain tissue following CEREBRAL INFARCTION; cerebral ischemia (see BRAIN ISCHEMIA), infection, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, or other injury. The term is often used during gross pathologic inspection to describe blurred cortical margins and decreased consistency of brain tissue following infarction. Multicystic encephalomalacia refers to the formation of multiple cystic cavities of various sizes in the cerebral cortex of neonates and infants following injury, most notably perinatal hypoxia-ischemic events. (From Davis et al., Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p665; J Neuropathol Exp Neurol, 1995 Mar;54(2):268-75)
Medicare Payment Advisory Commission
The Commission was created by the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 under Title XVIII. It is specifically charged to review the effect of Medicare+Choice under Medicare Part C and to review payment policies under Parts A and B. It is also generally charged to evaluate the effect of prospective payment policies and their impact on health care delivery in the US. The former Prospective Payment Assessment Commission (ProPAC) and the Physician Payment Review Commission (PPRC) were merged to form MEDPAC.
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