Calibration of the 1064 nm lidar channel using water phase and cirrus clouds.
Summary of "Calibration of the 1064 nm lidar channel using water phase and cirrus clouds."
Calibration is essential to derive aerosol backscatter coefficients from elastic scattering lidar. Unlike the visible UV wavelengths where calibration is based on a molecular reference, calibration of the 1064 nm lidar channel requires other approaches, which depend on various assumptions. In this paper, we analyze two independent calibration methods which use (i) low-altitude water phase clouds and (ii) high cirrus clouds. In particular, we show that to achieve optimal performance, aerosol attenuation below the cloud base and cloud multiple scattering must be accounted for. When all important processes are considered, we find that these two independent methods can provide a consistent calibration constant with relative differences less than 15%. We apply these calibration techniques to demonstrate the stability of our lidar on a monthly scale, along with a natural reduction of the lidar efficiency on an annual scale. Furthermore, our calibration procedure allows us to derive consistent aerosol backscatter coefficients and angstrom coefficient profiles (532-1064 nm) along with column extinction-to-backscatter ratios which are in good agreement with sky radiometer inversions.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Applied optics
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Metabolic Detoxication, Phase Ii
Conjugation of exogenous substances with various hydrophilic substituents to form water soluble products that are excretable in URINE. Phase II modifications include GLUTATHIONE; ACYLATION; and AMINATION. Phase II enzymes include GLUTATHIONE TRANSFERASE and GLUCURONOSYLTRANSFERASE. In a sense these reactions detoxify phase I reaction products.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
Colloids with liquid continuous phase and solid dispersed phase; the term is used loosely also for solid-in-gas (AEROSOLS) and other colloidal systems; water-insoluble drugs may be given as suspensions.
Metabolic Detoxication, Phase I
Functionalization of exogenous substances to prepare them for conjugation in PHASE II DETOXIFICATION. Phase I enzymes include CYTOCHROME P450 enzymes and some OXIDOREDUCTASES. Excess induction of phase I over phase II detoxification leads to higher levels of FREE RADICALS that can induce CANCER and other cell damage. Induction or antagonism of phase I detoxication is the basis of a number of DRUG INTERACTIONS.
The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.
Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) systems can be used to estimate both vertical and horizontal forest structure. Woody components, the leaves of trees and the understory can be described with high p...
We present a method for remote classification of birds based on eye-safe fluorescence lidar techniques. Mechanisms of quenching are discussed. Plumage reflectance is related to plumage fluorescence. L...
Results from field experiments using a fluorescence lidar system to monitor movements of insects are reported. Measurements over a river surface were made at distances between 100 and 300 m, detecting...
Airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) is fast turning the corner from demonstration technology to a key tool for assessing carbon stocks in tropical forests. With its ability to penetrate tropi...
Microemulsion phases have been prepared for the first time from the silicone oil "M(2)" (hexamethyldisiloxane) and a surfactant mixture of a nonionic surfactant "IT 3" (isotridecyltriethyleneglycoleth...
Retinal thickness measurement is one of the most important examinations in the follow up of exudative age-related macular degeneration. Prior studies have shown that there are a series of...
Dermatologists have for many years treated vascular lesions by a variety of modalities including cryosurgery, electrotherapy, dermabrasion and radiation. It has been hypothesized that sim...
Ocular Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive ophthalmologic test that uses reflected, unheated, non-concentrated visible light in order to scan and provide a 2-dimensional topograph...
In this study the reproducibility of optical coherence tomography measurements should be evaluated.
The study will evaluate whether the blood concentrations of eletriptan administered using two test formulations of oral disintegrating tablets are comparable to those observed with the sta...