An unexpected link between angiotensinogen and thrombin.
Summary of "An unexpected link between angiotensinogen and thrombin."
Angiotensinogen is well known as source protein for a group of potent vasoactive hormones, however, a discrete biochemical activity of the angiotensinogen body is not known. Here we investigated angiotensinogen from the lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis (L. fluviatilis), an early-diverged vertebrate. The recombinantly produced protein showed progressive inhibitory activity towards human α-thrombin with a second-order rate constant of 2.6×10(4)M(-1)min(-1). Heparin enhanced the reaction rate >800-fold with a bell-shaped dose-response curve and a stoichiometry of inhibition (SI) of 1.3, revealing lamprey angiotensinogen as an effective α-thrombin inhibitor. Genomic, biochemical, and protein sequence data indicate that angiotensinogen and heparin cofactor II (HCII) originated from a common ancestral thrombin antagonist, thus providing insight into an early stage of thrombin control.
Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Technology, Bielefeld University, 33615 Bielefeld, Germany.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: FEBS letters
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21722639
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.febslet.2011.06.021
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
An alpha-globulin of about 453 amino acids, depending on the species. It is produced by the liver and secreted into blood circulation. Angiotensinogen is the inactive precursor of natural angiotensins. Upon successive enzyme cleavages, angiotensinogen yields angiotensin I, II, and III with amino acids numbered at 10, 8, and 7, respectively.
Clotting time of PLASMA mixed with a THROMBIN solution. It is a measure of the conversion of FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN, which is prolonged by AFIBRINOGENEMIA, abnormal fibrinogen, or the presence of inhibitory substances, e.g., fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products, or HEPARIN. BATROXOBIN, a thrombin-like enzyme unaffected by the presence of heparin, may be used in place of thrombin.
A family of proteinase-activated receptors that are specific for THROMBIN. They are found primarily on PLATELETS and on ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. Activation of thrombin receptors occurs through the proteolytic action of THROMBIN, which cleaves the N-terminal peptide from the receptor to reveal a new N-terminal peptide that is a cryptic ligand for the receptor. The receptors signal through HETEROTRIMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. Small synthetic peptides that contain the unmasked N-terminal peptide sequence can also activate the receptor in the absence of proteolytic activity.
A vitamin-K dependent zymogen present in the blood, which, upon activation by thrombin and thrombomodulin exerts anticoagulant properties by inactivating factors Va and VIIIa at the rate-limiting steps of thrombin formation.
A multi-functional catenin that is highly homologous to BETA CATENIN. Gamma catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It is also found in DESMOSOMES where it mediates the link between DESMOSOMAL CADHERINS and DESMOPLAKIN.
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