Effect of peptide-based captopril analogues on angiotensin converting enzyme activity and peroxynitrite-mediated tyrosine nitration.
Summary of "Effect of peptide-based captopril analogues on angiotensin converting enzyme activity and peroxynitrite-mediated tyrosine nitration."
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) regulates the blood pressure by converting angiotensin I to angiotensin II and bradykinin to bradykinin 1-7. These two reactions elevate the blood pressure as angiotensin II and bradykinin are vasoconstrictory and vasodilatory hormones, respectively. Therefore, inhibition of ACE is an important strategy for the treatment of hypertension. The natural substrates of ACE, i.e., angiotensin II and bradykinin, contain a Pro-Phe motif near the site of hydrolysis. Therefore, there may be a Pro-Phe binding pocket at the active site of ACE, which may facilitate the substrate binding. In view of this, we have synthesized a series of thiol- and selenol-containing dipeptides and captopril analogues and studied their ACE inhibition activities. This study reveals that both the selenol or thiol moiety and proline residues are essential for ACE inhibition. Although the introduction of a Phe residue to captopril and its selenium analogue considerably reduces the inhibitory effect, there appears to be a Phe binding pocket at the active site of ACE.
Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India. email@example.com.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Organic & biomolecular chemistry
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A potent and specific inhibitor of PEPTIDYL-DIPEPTIDASE A. It blocks the conversion of ANGIOTENSIN I to ANGIOTENSIN II, a vasoconstrictor and important regulator of arterial blood pressure. Captopril acts to suppress the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM and inhibits pressure responses to exogenous angiotensin.
A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.
An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.
A decapeptide that is cleaved from precursor angiotensinogen by RENIN. Angiotensin I has limited biological activity. It is converted to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME.
Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Inhibitors
A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.
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