Localization of brain activation by umami taste in humans.
Summary of "Localization of brain activation by umami taste in humans."
There are no credible data to support the notion that individual taste qualities have dedicated pathways leading from the tongue to the end of the pathway in the brain. Moreover, the insular cortex is activated not only by taste but also by non-taste information from oral stimuli. These responses are invariably excitatory, and it is difficult to determine whether they are sensory, motor, or proprioceptive in origin. Furthermore, umami is a more unfamiliar and complex taste than other basic tastes. Considering these issues, it may be effective to minimize somatosensory stimuli, oral movement, and psychological effects in a neuroimaging study to elicit cerebral activity by pure umami on the human tongue. For this purpose, we developed an original taste delivery system for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies for umami. Then, we compared the results produced by two authorized models, namely, the block design model and event-related design model, to decide the appropriate model for detecting activation by umami. Activation by the umami taste was well localized in the insular cortex using our new system and block design model analysis. The peaks of the activated areas in the middle insular cortex by umami were very close to another prototypical taste quality (salty). Although we have to carefully interpret the perceiving intensities and brain activations by taste from different sessions, this study design might be effective for detecting the accession area in the cortex of pure umami taste on the tongue.
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, 3-1-1, Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, Japan.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Brain research
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21762881
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2011.06.029
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Conditions characterized by an alteration in gustatory function or perception. Taste disorders are frequently associated with OLFACTION DISORDERS. Additional potential etiologies include METABOLIC DISEASES; DRUG TOXICITY; and taste pathway disorders (e.g., TASTE BUD diseases; FACIAL NERVE DISEASES; GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE DISEASES; and BRAIN STEM diseases).
The process by which the nature and meaning of gustatory stimuli are recognized and interpreted by the brain. The four basic classes of taste perception are salty, sweet, bitter, and sour.
Small sensory organs which contain gustatory receptor cells, basal cells, and supporting cells. Taste buds in humans are found in the epithelia of the tongue, palate, and pharynx. They are innervated by the CHORDA TYMPANI NERVE (a branch of the facial nerve) and the GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE.
Scaffolding proteins that play an important role in the localization and activation of 5-LIPOXYGENASES.
The minimum concentration at which taste sensitivity to a particular substance or food can be perceived.
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