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Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by an unstable expansion of CAG repeats in the HD gene. The symptoms include cognitive dysfunction and severe motor impairments. The neuropathology is characterized by neuronal loss mainly in the striatum and cortex, although other regions including the hippocampus are also affected. In this review we discuss the different mouse models of HD, and how the process of neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone (SVZ) is affected in each. Deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis have been repeatedly shown in different genetic models of HD, raising the possibility that an impairment of the neurogenic process might underlie some of the cognitive deficits associated with this neurodegenerative disorder. On the other hand, an increase in SVZ neurogenesis has been observed in human HD brains while no differences in SVZ cell proliferation have been detected in the mouse models. In this review we will discuss the discrepancies between these findings as well as the several mechanisms that might contribute to a dysregulation of adult neurogenesis in HD. Finally, we will provide an overview of the various therapeutic strategies aimed at stimulating the endogenous neurogenic capacity that have been tested in HD genetic models. Ultimately, the insights obtained from these and future studies will greatly improve our understanding of the cognitive impairment characteristic of HD.
Division of Medical Sciences, Island Medical Program, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Brain research
The subventricular zone (SVZ) of the anterolateral ventricle and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus are the two main regions of the adult mammalian brain in which neurogenesis...
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is a process involving the continuous generation of newborn neurons in the hippocampus of adult animals. Mounting evidence has suggested that hippocampal neurogenesis co...
Enhanced neurogenesis has been reported in the hippocampus of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative disorder characterized with amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregation, tau hy...
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been proven to enhance neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (HDG). However, various groups reported contradictory results on whether T...
The full role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) remains to be determined, yet it is implicated in learning, emotional functions, and is disrupted in negative mood disorders. Recent evidence indi...
The purpose of this study is primarily to assess the ability of a music therapy program to improve holistically the psychological, somatic, and social symptoms of patients with Huntington ...
The purpose of this trial is to study early brain and behavioral changes in people who have the gene expansion for Huntington's disease, but are currently healthy and have no symptoms.
This study is being conducted to determine the safety and tolerability of Dimebon in people with Huntington's disease after short-term exposure (one week) and after longer exposure (three ...
OBJECTIVES: I. Correlate clinical outcome with cerebral glucose metabolism in patients with Huntington's disease (HD) and their at-risk relatives. II. Evaluate the efficacy of cerebral ...
The purpose of this study is to define the natural history and experiences of people who are at risk for developing Huntington's disease but who do not know their genetic status.
Nucleus in the NEOSTRIATUM of bird brains that sends signals for song production and receives auditory input. In some adult SONGBIRDS, research has shown that the size of this nucleus changes seasonally and that it exhibits neurogenesis.
Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.
Disorders resulting from defects in migration of neuronal cells during neurogenesis. Developing nerve cells either fail to migrate or they migrate to incorrect positions resulting in formation of heterotopias, lissencephaly, or other malformations and dysfunctions of the nervous system.
Injury to the nervous system secondary to exposure to lead compounds. Two distinct clinical patterns occur in children (LEAD POISONING, NERVOUS SYSTEM, CHILDHOOD) and adults (LEAD POISONING, NERVOUS SYSTEM, ADULT). In children, lead poisoning typically produces an encephalopathy. In adults, exposure to toxic levels of lead is associated with a peripheral neuropathy.
Neurologic conditions in adults associated with acute or chronic exposure to lead or any of its salts. The most common lead related neurologic syndrome in adults consists of a polyneuropathy involving motor fibers. This tends to affect distal nerves and may present as wrist drop due to RADIAL NEUROPATHY. Additional features of chronic lead exposure include ANEMIA; CONSTIPATION; colicky abdominal pain; a bluish lead line of the gums; interstitial nephritis (NEPHRITIS, INTERSTITIAL); and saturnine gout. An encephalopathy may rarely occur. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1212)
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