Diuretics in the treatment of hypertension : Efficacy, safety and tolerability.
Summary of "Diuretics in the treatment of hypertension : Efficacy, safety and tolerability."
In the treatment of hypertension, both the thiazide diuretics hydrochlorothiazide and bendroflumethiazide and the "thiazide-like" diuretics chlorthalidone and indapamide are used. Guidelines refer to these as the class of thiazide diuretics suggesting their interchangeability. However, bendroflumethiazide and hydrochlorothiazide, at least in the commonly used low dose range, are less potent with respect to blood pressure lowering and may also be less effective in preventing morbidity and mortality events. This is of great clinical relevance since hydrochlorothiazide is by far the most widely prescribed diuretic. Increasing the dose of hydrochlorothiazide would further reduce tolerability of treatment due to an increase in dose-dependent side effects. The underlying mechanisms of the suggested superiority of chlorthalidone on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality remain unclear. The half-life of chlorthalidone has been estimated at >50 h thus exceeding the half-life of hydrochlorothiazide by about 5-fold. Given the documented irregular intake of antihypertensive drugs, the prolonged efficacy of chlorthalidone makes this agent a "forgiving drug" with a definite advantage over hydrochlorothiazide. On the basis of the available evidence, whenever diuretic treatment is indicated in a hypertensive patient, a thiazide-like agent, preferably chlorthalidone should be employed.
Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik I, Universitätsklinikum, Wilhelmstraße 35-37, 53111, Bonn, Deutschland, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Der Internist
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21833757
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00108-011-2915-3
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, practicability, etc., of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The relative equivalency in the efficacy of different modes of treatment of a disease, most often used to compare the efficacy of different pharmaceuticals to treat a given disease.
Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.