Oxycodone induced delirium and agitation in an elderly patient following total right knee arthroplasty.
Summary of "Oxycodone induced delirium and agitation in an elderly patient following total right knee arthroplasty."
Case Opioids are commonly prescribed for pain, and are often connected to mental status adverse events. Delirium is a side effect associated with narcotic analgesics, with a higher incidence in the elderly. This report describes an elderly male that received a total knee arthroplasty and received morphine post-operatively. On post-operative day 2, morphine was discontinued due to mental status changes and switched to oxycodone/acetaminophen. Twenty-four hours after administering oxycodone, the patient's mental status declined. After the patient returned to baseline he was transferred to rehabilitation and re-challenged with oxycodone/acetaminophen. The re-challenge was inadvertent due to inadequate documentation of the adverse event and lack of understanding by the health care team of delirium associated with opioids. A similar rapid decline in mental status occurred. Conclusion Clinicians should be cognizant of narcotic analgesics inducing mental status changes, even with an alternative. Detailed documentation of adverse events should occur to avoid accidental re-challenges.
College of Pharmacy, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 847 Monroe Avenue, Memphis, TN, 38163, USA, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: International journal of clinical pharmacy
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21853363
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11096-011-9553-7
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium
An acute organic mental disorder induced by cessation or reduction in chronic alcohol consumption. Clinical characteristics include CONFUSION; DELUSIONS; vivid HALLUCINATIONS; TREMOR; agitation; insomnia; and signs of autonomic hyperactivity (e.g., elevated blood pressure and heart rate, dilated pupils, and diaphoresis). This condition may occasionally be fatal. It was formerly called delirium tremens. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1175)
A disorder characterized by CONFUSION; inattentiveness; disorientation; ILLUSIONS; HALLUCINATIONS; agitation; and in some instances autonomic nervous system overactivity. It may result from toxic/metabolic conditions or structural brain lesions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp411-2)
Delirium, Dementia, Amnestic, Cognitive Disorders
Cognitive disorders including delirium, dementia, and other cognitive disorders. These may be the result of substance use, trauma, or other causes.
A butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of HALOPERIDOL. It is used in conjunction with an opioid analgesic such as FENTANYL to maintain the patient in a calm state of neuroleptanalgesia with indifference to surroundings but still able to cooperate with the surgeon. It is also used as a premedicant, as an antiemetic, and for the control of agitation in acute psychoses. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p593)
Housing For The Elderly
Housing arrangements for the elderly or aged, intended to foster independent living. The housing may take the form of group homes or small apartments. It is available to the economically self-supporting but the concept includes housing for the elderly with some physical limitations. The concept should be differentiated from HOMES FOR THE AGED which is restricted to long-term geriatric facilities providing supervised medical and nursing services.
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