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Case Opioids are commonly prescribed for pain, and are often connected to mental status adverse events. Delirium is a side effect associated with narcotic analgesics, with a higher incidence in the elderly. This report describes an elderly male that received a total knee arthroplasty and received morphine post-operatively. On post-operative day 2, morphine was discontinued due to mental status changes and switched to oxycodone/acetaminophen. Twenty-four hours after administering oxycodone, the patient's mental status declined. After the patient returned to baseline he was transferred to rehabilitation and re-challenged with oxycodone/acetaminophen. The re-challenge was inadvertent due to inadequate documentation of the adverse event and lack of understanding by the health care team of delirium associated with opioids. A similar rapid decline in mental status occurred. Conclusion Clinicians should be cognizant of narcotic analgesics inducing mental status changes, even with an alternative. Detailed documentation of adverse events should occur to avoid accidental re-challenges.
College of Pharmacy, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 847 Monroe Avenue, Memphis, TN, 38163, USA, email@example.com.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: International journal of clinical pharmacy
Elderly population account for more than 50% of all intensive care admissions, and during their stay, up to 87% of them suffer from delirium. There is a large body of evidence demonstrating increased ...
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Delirium is an organic psychiatric syndrome characterized by fluctuating consciousness and impairment in perception, cognition and behavior. In hospitalized elderly, the prevalence of deli...
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An acute organic mental disorder induced by cessation or reduction in chronic alcohol consumption. Clinical characteristics include CONFUSION; DELUSIONS; vivid HALLUCINATIONS; TREMOR; agitation; insomnia; and signs of autonomic hyperactivity (e.g., elevated blood pressure and heart rate, dilated pupils, and diaphoresis). This condition may occasionally be fatal. It was formerly called delirium tremens. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1175)
A disorder characterized by CONFUSION; inattentiveness; disorientation; ILLUSIONS; HALLUCINATIONS; agitation; and in some instances autonomic nervous system overactivity. It may result from toxic/metabolic conditions or structural brain lesions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp411-2)
Cognitive disorders including delirium, dementia, and other cognitive disorders. These may be the result of substance use, trauma, or other causes.
A butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of HALOPERIDOL. It is used in conjunction with an opioid analgesic such as FENTANYL to maintain the patient in a calm state of neuroleptanalgesia with indifference to surroundings but still able to cooperate with the surgeon. It is also used as a premedicant, as an antiemetic, and for the control of agitation in acute psychoses. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p593)
Housing arrangements for the elderly or aged, intended to foster independent living. The housing may take the form of group homes or small apartments. It is available to the economically self-supporting but the concept includes housing for the elderly with some physical limitations. The concept should be differentiated from HOMES FOR THE AGED which is restricted to long-term geriatric facilities providing supervised medical and nursing services.
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Arthroplasty is a surgical procedure to restore the integrity and function of a joint. A joint can be restored by resurfacing the bones. An artificial joint (called a prosthesis) may also be used. Various types of arthritis may affect the joints. Osteo...
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An anesthesiologist (US English) or anaesthetist (British English) is a physician trained in anesthesia and perioperative medicine. Anesthesiologists are physicians who provide medical care to patients in a wide variety of (usually acute) situations. ...
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