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Photo-induced damage to proteins occurs via multiple pathways. Direct damage induced by UVB (λ 280-320 nm) and UVA radiation (λ 320-400 nm) is limited to a small number of amino acid residues, principally tryptophan (Trp), tyrosine (Tyr), histidine (His) and disulfide (cystine) residues, with this occurring via both excited state species and radicals. Indirect protein damage can occur via singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)(1)Δ(g)), with this resulting in damage to Trp, Tyr, His, cystine, cysteine (Cys) and methionine (Met) residues. Although initial damage is limited to these residues multiple secondary processes, that occur both during and after radiation exposure, can result in damage to other intra- and inter-molecular sites. Secondary damage can arise via radicals (e.g. Trp, Tyr and Cys radicals), from reactive intermediates generated by (1)O(2) (e.g. Trp, Tyr and His peroxides) and via molecular reactions of photo-products (e.g. reactive carbonyls). These processes can result in protein fragmentation, aggregation, altered physical and chemical properties (e.g. hydrophobicity and charge) and modulated biological turnover. Accumulating evidence implicates these events in cellular and tissue dysfunction (e.g. apoptosis, necrosis and altered cell signaling), and multiple human pathologies.
The Heart Research Institute, 7 Eliza Street, Newtown, Sydney, NSW 2042, Australia.
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Proteins, usually acting in oxidation-reduction reactions, containing iron but no porphyrin groups. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1993, pG-10)
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Compounds used extensively as acetylation, oxidation and dehydrating agents and in the modification of proteins and enzymes.
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