Phytoceramide and sphingoid bases derived from brewer's yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.
Summary of "Phytoceramide and sphingoid bases derived from brewer's yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors."
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate lipid and glucose metabolism. PPAR alpha is highly expressed in the liver and controls genes involved in lipid catabolism. We previously reported that synthetic sphingolipid analogs, part of which contains shorter-length fatty acid chains than natural sphingolipids, stimulated the transcriptional activities of PPARs. Sphingosine and dihydrosphingosine (DHS) are abundant sphingoid bases, and ceramide and dihydroceramide are major ceramide species in mammals. In contrast, phytosphingosine (PHS) and DHS are the main sphingoid bases in fungi. PHS and phytoceramide exist in particular tissues such as the epidermis in mammals, and involvement of ceramide species in PPAR beta activation in cultured keratinocytes has been reported. The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether natural sphingolipids with C18 fatty acid and yeast-derived sphingoid bases activate PPARs as PPAR agonists.
Lipids of brewer's yeast contain PHS- and DHS-based sphingolipids. To obtain the sphingoid bases, lipids were extracted from brewer's yeast and acid-hydrolyzed. The sphingoid base fraction was purified and quantified. To assess the effects of sphingolipids on PPAR activation, luciferase reporter assay was carried out. NIH/3T3 and human hepatoma (HepG2) cells were transfected with expression vectors for PPARs and retinoid X receptors, and PPAR responsive element reporter vector. When indicated, the PPAR/Gal4 chimera system was performed to enhance the credibility of experiments. Sphingolipids were added to the cells and the dual luciferase reporter assay was performed to determine the transcriptional activity of PPARs.
We observed that phytoceramide increased the transcriptional activities of PPARs significantly, whereas ceramide and dihydroceramide did not change PPAR activities. Phytoceramide also increased transactivation of PPAR/Gal4 chimera receptors. Yeast-derived sphingoid base fraction, which contained PHS and DHS, or authentic PHS or DHS increased PPAR-dependent transcription. Additionally, phytoceramide stimulated PPAR alpha activity in HepG2 hepatocytes, suggesting that phytoceramide activates genes regulated by PPAR alpha.
Phytoceramide and yeast-derived sphingoid bases activate PPARs, whereas ceramide and dihydroceramide do not change the PPAR activity. The present findings suggest that phytoceramide acts as a PPAR ligand that would regulate PPAR-targeted genes.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Lipids in health and disease
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21861924
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-511X-10-150
Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important industrial host for production of enzymes, pharmaceutical and nutraceutical ingredients and recently also commodity chemicals and biofuels. Here, we revi...
Lupin peptone was shown to be a suitable replacement for traditional bacteriological peptone in the culture of Candida glabrata, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This new medium formulat...
Lager yeast beer production was revolutionized by the introduction of pure culture strains. The first established lager yeast strain is known as the bottom fermenting Saccharomyces carlsbergensis, whi...
Volatile energy costs and environmental concerns have spurred interest in the development of alternative, renewable, sustainable, and cost-effective energy resources. Environment-friendly processes in...
Thioredoxin (TRX) is a redox regulating protein which has protective effects against oxidative stress-induced damage to cells and tissues. In this study, we investigated the effects of orally administ...
The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of a palm-oil derived tocotrienol (TRF) supplement or Chinese red yeast rice (CRYR) individually and in combination on blood cholester...
This study will examine the effect of red yeast rice extract compared to pravastatin on muscle related complaints in individuals with high cholesterol who have previously been unable to to...
Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center researchers are trying to compare the effects of two different forms of selenium (selenium yeast and selenomethionine) on blood selenium levels ...
Yeast vaginitis is a very common ailment affecting premenopausal women in Nigeria. This condition is more prevalent in the age group between 21-30 years. More than 75% of premenopausal wom...
The purpose of this study is to determine to what degree Hypocol® (Red Yeast Rice) may lower low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol in a European population. The effect of Red Yeast Ri...
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.
The dry cells of any suitable strain of SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE or CANDIDA. It can be obtained as a by-product from the brewing of beer or by growing on media not suitable for beer production. Dried yeast serves as a source of protein and VITAMIN B COMPLEX.
Neutral glycosphingolipids that contain a monosaccharide, normally glucose or galactose, in 1-ortho-beta-glycosidic linkage with the primary alcohol of an N-acyl sphingoid (ceramide). In plants the monosaccharide is normally glucose and the sphingoid usually phytosphingosine. In animals, the monosaccharide is usually galactose, though this may vary with the tissue and the sphingoid is usually sphingosine or dihydrosphingosine. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1st ed)
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS from SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. It is involved in morphological events related to the cell cycle. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 22.214.171.124.