Advertisement

Topics

Phytoceramide and sphingoid bases derived from brewer's yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.

Summary of "Phytoceramide and sphingoid bases derived from brewer's yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors."


ABSTRACT:

BACKGROUND:
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate lipid and glucose metabolism. PPAR alpha is highly expressed in the liver and controls genes involved in lipid catabolism. We previously reported that synthetic sphingolipid analogs, part of which contains shorter-length fatty acid chains than natural sphingolipids, stimulated the transcriptional activities of PPARs. Sphingosine and dihydrosphingosine (DHS) are abundant sphingoid bases, and ceramide and dihydroceramide are major ceramide species in mammals. In contrast, phytosphingosine (PHS) and DHS are the main sphingoid bases in fungi. PHS and phytoceramide exist in particular tissues such as the epidermis in mammals, and involvement of ceramide species in PPAR beta activation in cultured keratinocytes has been reported. The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether natural sphingolipids with C18 fatty acid and yeast-derived sphingoid bases activate PPARs as PPAR agonists.
METHOD:
Lipids of brewer's yeast contain PHS- and DHS-based sphingolipids. To obtain the sphingoid bases, lipids were extracted from brewer's yeast and acid-hydrolyzed. The sphingoid base fraction was purified and quantified. To assess the effects of sphingolipids on PPAR activation, luciferase reporter assay was carried out. NIH/3T3 and human hepatoma (HepG2) cells were transfected with expression vectors for PPARs and retinoid X receptors, and PPAR responsive element reporter vector. When indicated, the PPAR/Gal4 chimera system was performed to enhance the credibility of experiments. Sphingolipids were added to the cells and the dual luciferase reporter assay was performed to determine the transcriptional activity of PPARs.
RESULTS:
We observed that phytoceramide increased the transcriptional activities of PPARs significantly, whereas ceramide and dihydroceramide did not change PPAR activities. Phytoceramide also increased transactivation of PPAR/Gal4 chimera receptors. Yeast-derived sphingoid base fraction, which contained PHS and DHS, or authentic PHS or DHS increased PPAR-dependent transcription. Additionally, phytoceramide stimulated PPAR alpha activity in HepG2 hepatocytes, suggesting that phytoceramide activates genes regulated by PPAR alpha.
CONCLUSIONS:
Phytoceramide and yeast-derived sphingoid bases activate PPARs, whereas ceramide and dihydroceramide do not change the PPAR activity. The present findings suggest that phytoceramide acts as a PPAR ligand that would regulate PPAR-targeted genes.

Affiliation

Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Lipids in health and disease
ISSN: 1476-511X
Pages: 150

Links

DeepDyve research library

PubMed Articles [7031 Associated PubMed Articles listed on BioPortfolio]

Functions of Ceramide Synthase Paralogs YPR114w and YJR116w of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Ceramide is synthesized in yeast by two redundant acyl-CoA dependent synthases, Lag1 and Lac1. In lag1∆ lac1∆ cells, free fatty acids and sphingoid bases are elevated, and ceramides are produced t...

Polygenic analysis and targeted improvement of the complex trait of high acetic acid tolerance in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Acetic acid is one of the major inhibitors in lignocellulose hydrolysates used for the production of second-generation bioethanol. Although several genes have been identified in laboratory yeast strai...

Variation in Indole-3-Acetic Acid Production by Wild Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. paradoxus Strains from Diverse Ecological Sources and Its Effect on Growth.

Phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is the most common naturally occurring and most thoroughly studied plant growth regulator. Microbial synthesis of IAA has long been known. Microbial IAA biosynt...

Whole Genome Analysis of 132 Clinical Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains Reveals Extensive Ploidy Variation.

Budding yeast has undergone several independent transitions from commercial to clinical lifestyles. The frequency of such transitions suggests that clinical yeast strains are derived from environmenta...

Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for linalool production.

To engineer the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the heterologous production of linalool.

Clinical Trials [843 Associated Clinical Trials listed on BioPortfolio]

Effects of a Supplement Derived From Palm Oil on Cholesterol Levels and Chinese Red Yeast Rice in the Blood

The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of a palm-oil derived tocotrienol (TRF) supplement or Chinese red yeast rice (CRYR) individually and in combination on blood cholester...

Lipid-lowering Effect of Phytosterols, Red Yeast Rice and Their Combination

A large body of evidence confirm the cholesterol lowering effect of phytosterols and red yeast rice. Because their mechanisms of action mime the ones of chemical statins and cholesterol ab...

Safety of Red Yeast Rice for High Cholesterol in Individuals With Statin Intolerance

This study will examine the effect of red yeast rice extract compared to pravastatin on muscle related complaints in individuals with high cholesterol who have previously been unable to to...

The Efficacy and Safety of Combined Therapy With Red Yeast Rice and Low-dose Statin:Comparing With Standarized Statin

Double-dose statin regimen achieves merely 6% of decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, whereas the risk of side effects increased largely. Our previous pliot stud...

Influence of Selenium on Prostate Cancer Related Biomarkers

Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center researchers are trying to compare the effects of two different forms of selenium (selenium yeast and selenomethionine) on blood selenium levels ...

Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.

A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.

The dry cells of any suitable strain of SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE or CANDIDA. It can be obtained as a by-product from the brewing of beer or by growing on media not suitable for beer production. Dried yeast serves as a source of protein and VITAMIN B COMPLEX.

Neutral glycosphingolipids that contain a monosaccharide, normally glucose or galactose, in 1-ortho-beta-glycosidic linkage with the primary alcohol of an N-acyl sphingoid (ceramide). In plants the monosaccharide is normally glucose and the sphingoid usually phytosphingosine. In animals, the monosaccharide is usually galactose, though this may vary with the tissue and the sphingoid is usually sphingosine or dihydrosphingosine. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1st ed)

A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS from SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. It is involved in morphological events related to the cell cycle. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.

Quick Search
Advertisement
 


DeepDyve research library

Relevant Topics

Hepatology
Hepatology is the study of liver, gallbladder, biliary tree, and pancreas, and diseases associated with them. This includes viral hepatitis, alcohol damage, cirrhosis and cancer. As modern lifestyles change, with alcoholism and cancer becoming more promi...

Dermatology
Acne Dermatology Eczema Psoriasis Wound Care Dermatology is the medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of skin disorders (Oxford Medical Dictionary). As well as studying how the skin works, dermatology covers...

Assays
An assay is an analytic procedure for qualitatively assessing or quantitatively measuring the presence or amount or the functional activity of a target entity.  This can be a drug or biochemical substance or a cell in an organism or organic sample. ...


Searches Linking to this Article