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Saliva flow induced by 6-gingerol (pungent), hydroxy-α/β-sanshools (tingling), and citric acid (sour) was measured, and the time-dependent changes in the whole saliva proteome were analyzed by means of 2D-PAGE, followed by tryptic in-gel digestion and MALDI-TOF-MS peptide mass fingerprint analysis. The proteins showing significantly decreased abundance after oral 6-gingerol stimulation were identified as glutathione S-transferase P, the heat shock protein β-1, the heat shock 70 kDa protein 1, annexin A1, and cytoplasmic β-actin, whereas prolactin inducible proteins (PIP), short palate, lung and nasal epithelium carcinoma-associated protein 2 (SPLUNC2), zinc-α-2-glycoproteins (Zn-α-GP), and carbonic anhydrase VI (CAVI) were found with increased abundance. As the effects of this study were observed instantaneously upon stimulation, any proteome modulation is very likely to result from the release of proteins from preformed vesicles and not from de novo synthesis. The elevated levels of SPLUNC2, Zn-α-GP, and CAVI might be interpreted to trigger innate protective mechanisms in mucosal immunity and in nonimmune mucosal defense and might play an important role during the initial stage of inflammation.
Chair of Food Chemistry and Molecular Sensory Science, Technische Universität München , Lise-Meitner Strasse 34, D-85354 Freising, Germany.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of agricultural and food chemistry
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