Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
Both point- and nonpoint-sources of pollution have contributed to increased inorganic nitrogen concentrations in freshwater ecosystems. Although numerous studies have investigated the toxic effects of ammonia on freshwater species, relatively little work has been performed to characterize the acute toxicity of the other two common inorganic nitrogen species: nitrate and nitrite. In particular, to our knowledge, no published data exist on the toxicity of nitrate and nitrite to North American freshwater bivalves (Mollusca) or stoneflies (Insecta, Plecoptera). We conducted acute (96-h) nitrate and nitrite toxicity tests with two stonefly species (Allocapnia vivipara and Amphinemura delosa), an amphipod (Hyalella azteca), two freshwater unionid mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea and Megalonaias nervosa), a fingernail clam (Sphaerium simile), and a pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis). Overall, we did not observe a particularly wide degree of variation in sensitivity to nitrate, with median lethal concentrations ranging from 357 to 937 mg NO(3)-N/l; furthermore, no particular taxonomic group appeared to be more sensitive to nitrate than any other. In our nitrite tests, the two stoneflies tested were by far the most sensitive, and the three mollusks tested were the least sensitive. In contrast to what was observed in the nitrate tests, variation among species in sensitivity to nitrite spanned two orders of magnitude. Examination of the updated nitrite database, including previously published data, clearly showed that insects tended to be more sensitive than crustaceans, which were in turn more sensitive than mollusks. Although the toxic mechanism of nitrite is generally thought to be the conversion of oxygen-carrying pigments into forms that cannot carry oxygen, our observed trend in sensitivity of broad taxonomic groups, along with information on respiratory pigments in those groups, suggests that some other yet unknown mechanism may be even more important.
Illinois Natural History Survey, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1816 S. Oak St., Champaign, IL, 61820, USA, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common type of nosocomial infection. Traditionally, the presence of white blood cells and microorganisms in the urine provides objective evidence for UTI d...
Nitrate reduction to nitrite in oil fields appears to be more thermophilic than the subsequent reduction of nitrite. Concentrated microbial consortia from oil fields reduced both nitrate and nitrite a...
Dietary nitrate (found in green leafy vegetables such as rocket and in beetroot) is now recognised to be an important source of nitric oxide, via the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway. Dietary nitrate confer...
High nitrate levels in the environment may result in congenital defects or miscarriages in humans. Presumably, this is due to the conversion of nitrate to nitrite by gut and salivary bacteria. Howeve...
Dexrazoxane (DEX) is a clinically available cardioprotectant that reduces the toxicity induced by anthracycline (ANT) anticancer drugs; however, DEX is seldom used and its action is poorly understood....
The purpose of this study is to investigate how the effect of infused sodium nitrite differs in hypertensives compared to healthy age and sex matched controls. The effects on renal handlin...
The purpose of this study is to determine whether the intravenous infusion of sodium nitrite safely prevents ischemia-reperfusion injury in subjects with acute myocardial infarction result...
This study will determine whether and how nitrites and nitrates in the diet affect the level of nitric oxide gas that is breathed out in air. Nitric oxide is involved in many bodily proce...
The purpose of the study is to examine the safety of a 14 day infusion of sodium nitrite, and to study the pharmacokinetics of nitrite, during a 14 day infusion in patients with ruptured c...
Acute consumption of dietary nitrate (as beetroot juice) has been shown to improve exercise capacity in athletes, healthy adults and subjects with both peripheral vascular disease or COPD....
An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a FLAVOPROTEIN that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM and is involved in the first step of nitrate assimilation in PLANTS; FUNGI; and BACTERIA. It was formerly classified as EC 22.214.171.124.
An iron-sulfur and MOLYBDENUM containing FLAVOPROTEIN that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. This enzyme can use either NAD or NADP as cofactors. It is a key enzyme that is involved in the first step of nitrate assimilation in PLANTS; FUNGI; and BACTERIA. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 126.96.36.199.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a cytochrome protein that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate in the presence of NADP+. It is a FLAVOPROTEIN that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 188.8.131.52 and should not be confused with the enzyme NITRATE REDUCTASE (NAD(P)H).
A process facilitated by specialized bacteria involving the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate.
Asthma COPD Cystic Fibrosis Pneumonia Pulmonary Medicine Respiratory Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are any infection of the sinuses, throat, airways or lungs. They're usually caused by viruses, but they can also ...