Advertisement
Advertise here Publish your press releases here Sponsor BioPortfolio
Follow us on Twitter Sign up for daily news and research emails Contributors wanted

Acute Toxicity of Nitrate and Nitrite to Sensitive Freshwater Insects, Mollusks, and a Crustacean.

01:32 EDT 18th April 2014 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Acute Toxicity of Nitrate and Nitrite to Sensitive Freshwater Insects, Mollusks, and a Crustacean."

Both point- and nonpoint-sources of pollution have contributed to increased inorganic nitrogen concentrations in freshwater ecosystems. Although numerous studies have investigated the toxic effects of ammonia on freshwater species, relatively little work has been performed to characterize the acute toxicity of the other two common inorganic nitrogen species: nitrate and nitrite. In particular, to our knowledge, no published data exist on the toxicity of nitrate and nitrite to North American freshwater bivalves (Mollusca) or stoneflies (Insecta, Plecoptera). We conducted acute (96-h) nitrate and nitrite toxicity tests with two stonefly species (Allocapnia vivipara and Amphinemura delosa), an amphipod (Hyalella azteca), two freshwater unionid mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea and Megalonaias nervosa), a fingernail clam (Sphaerium simile), and a pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis). Overall, we did not observe a particularly wide degree of variation in sensitivity to nitrate, with median lethal concentrations ranging from 357 to 937 mg NO(3)-N/l; furthermore, no particular taxonomic group appeared to be more sensitive to nitrate than any other. In our nitrite tests, the two stoneflies tested were by far the most sensitive, and the three mollusks tested were the least sensitive. In contrast to what was observed in the nitrate tests, variation among species in sensitivity to nitrite spanned two orders of magnitude. Examination of the updated nitrite database, including previously published data, clearly showed that insects tended to be more sensitive than crustaceans, which were in turn more sensitive than mollusks. Although the toxic mechanism of nitrite is generally thought to be the conversion of oxygen-carrying pigments into forms that cannot carry oxygen, our observed trend in sensitivity of broad taxonomic groups, along with information on respiratory pigments in those groups, suggests that some other yet unknown mechanism may be even more important.

Affiliation

Illinois Natural History Survey, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1816 S. Oak St., Champaign, IL, 61820, USA, d-soucek@inhs.uiuc.edu.

Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology
ISSN: 1432-0703
Pages:

Links

PubMed Articles [9368 Associated PubMed Articles listed on BioPortfolio]

Molecular Components of Nitrate and Nitrite Efflux in Yeast.

Some eukaryotes such as plant and fungi are capable of utilizing nitrate as the sole nitrogen source. Once transported into the cell, nitrate is reduced to ammonium by the consecutive action of nitrat...

Nitrate and nitrite as 'in vivo' quenchers of chlorophyll fluorescence in blue-green algae.

The effect of nitrate and nitrite on long-term chlorophyll fluorescence has been studied in filamentous blue-green algae. Cells grown autotrophically with nitrate as nitrogen source show, under argon...

Sensitivity of hypogean and epigean freshwater copepods to agricultural pollutants.

Widespread pollution from agriculture is one of the major causes of the poor freshwater quality currently observed across Europe. Several studies have addressed the direct impact of agricultural pollu...

Preventive and therapeutic effects of nitrite supplementation in experimental inflammatory bowel disease.

Inorganic nitrate and nitrite have emerged as alternative substrates for nitric oxide (NO) generation in the gastrointestinal tract, and have shown to be protective against drug-induced gastric injury...

Stoichiometry between photosynthetic nitrate reduction and alkalinisation by Ankistrodesmus braunii in vivo.

The uptake of nitrate or nitrite in the light, the release of nitrite and ammonia, and the corresponding alkalinisation of the medium were measured in synchronous Ankistrodesmus braunii (Naeg.) Brunnt...

Clinical Trials [3468 Associated Clinical Trials listed on BioPortfolio]

Sodium Nitrite in Acute Myocardial Infarction

The purpose of this study is to determine whether the intravenous infusion of sodium nitrite safely prevents ischemia-reperfusion injury in subjects with acute myocardial infarction result...

Determination of Variances in Exhaled Nitric Oxide Output in Normal Healthy Male Volunteers Consuming High and Low Nitrate/Nitrite Diets

This study will determine whether and how nitrites and nitrates in the diet affect the level of nitric oxide gas that is breathed out in air. Nitric oxide is involved in many bodily proce...

Safety and Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Nitrite for Prevention of Cerebral Vasospasm

The purpose of the study is to examine the safety of a 14 day infusion of sodium nitrite, and to study the pharmacokinetics of nitrite, during a 14 day infusion in patients with ruptured c...

Safety and Efficacy of Sodium Nitrite in Sickle Cell Disease

This study will determine if administration of sodium nitrite is safe and can improve small vessel blood flow and tissue oxygenation when given as an additional treatment in patients with...

Efficacy of Potassium Nitrate Solution in Reducing Dentinal Hypersensitivity

An exploratory study investigating the direct application of potassium nitrate solutions of different concentrations in reducing dentine hypersensitivity.

Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a FLAVOPROTEIN that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM and is involved in the first step of nitrate assimilation in PLANTS; FUNGI; and BACTERIA. It was formerly classified as EC 1.6.6.1.

An iron-sulfur and MOLYBDENUM containing FLAVOPROTEIN that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. This enzyme can use either NAD or NADP as cofactors. It is a key enzyme that is involved in the first step of nitrate assimilation in PLANTS; FUNGI; and BACTERIA. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.6.6.2.

An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a cytochrome protein that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM.

An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate in the presence of NADP+. It is a FLAVOPROTEIN that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.6.6.3 and should not be confused with the enzyme NITRATE REDUCTASE (NAD(P)H).

A process facilitated by specialized bacteria involving the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate.

Search BioPortfolio: