Acute Toxicity of Nitrate and Nitrite to Sensitive Freshwater Insects, Mollusks, and a Crustacean.
Summary of "Acute Toxicity of Nitrate and Nitrite to Sensitive Freshwater Insects, Mollusks, and a Crustacean."
Both point- and nonpoint-sources of pollution have contributed to increased inorganic nitrogen concentrations in freshwater ecosystems. Although numerous studies have investigated the toxic effects of ammonia on freshwater species, relatively little work has been performed to characterize the acute toxicity of the other two common inorganic nitrogen species: nitrate and nitrite. In particular, to our knowledge, no published data exist on the toxicity of nitrate and nitrite to North American freshwater bivalves (Mollusca) or stoneflies (Insecta, Plecoptera). We conducted acute (96-h) nitrate and nitrite toxicity tests with two stonefly species (Allocapnia vivipara and Amphinemura delosa), an amphipod (Hyalella azteca), two freshwater unionid mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea and Megalonaias nervosa), a fingernail clam (Sphaerium simile), and a pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis). Overall, we did not observe a particularly wide degree of variation in sensitivity to nitrate, with median lethal concentrations ranging from 357 to 937 mg NO(3)-N/l; furthermore, no particular taxonomic group appeared to be more sensitive to nitrate than any other. In our nitrite tests, the two stoneflies tested were by far the most sensitive, and the three mollusks tested were the least sensitive. In contrast to what was observed in the nitrate tests, variation among species in sensitivity to nitrite spanned two orders of magnitude. Examination of the updated nitrite database, including previously published data, clearly showed that insects tended to be more sensitive than crustaceans, which were in turn more sensitive than mollusks. Although the toxic mechanism of nitrite is generally thought to be the conversion of oxygen-carrying pigments into forms that cannot carry oxygen, our observed trend in sensitivity of broad taxonomic groups, along with information on respiratory pigments in those groups, suggests that some other yet unknown mechanism may be even more important.
Illinois Natural History Survey, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1816 S. Oak St., Champaign, IL, 61820, USA, email@example.com.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21877224
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00244-011-9705-8
Nitrate (NO3(-)) and nitrite (NO2(-)) are endocrine disruptors to downregulate expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and motor behavior through conversion to nitric oxide in early development of zebrafish.
With a view to consider the increasing concern over nitrogen pollution in the aquatic environment, we investigated effects of nitrate (NO3(-)) and nitrite (NO2(-)) on the activity of dopaminergic neur...
Nitrate and nitrite are commonly thought of as inert end-products of nitric oxide (NO) oxidation, possibly carcinogenic food additives, or well-water contaminants. However, recent studies have shown t...
A dual-electrode sensor is developed for rapid detection of nitrite/nitrate at micromolar levels in phosphate buffer media and in dilute horse serum without additional sample pre-treatment. A generato...
The biological nitrogen cycle involves step-wise reduction of nitrogen oxides to ammonium salts and oxidation of ammonia back to nitrites and nitrates by plants and bacteria. Neither process has been ...
While the commercialization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is rapidly expanding, the environmental impact of this nanomaterial is not well understood. Therefore, the present study evaluate...
The purpose of this study is to determine whether the intravenous infusion of sodium nitrite safely prevents ischemia-reperfusion injury in subjects with acute myocardial infarction result...
This study will determine whether and how nitrites and nitrates in the diet affect the level of nitric oxide gas that is breathed out in air. Nitric oxide is involved in many bodily proce...
The purpose of the study is to examine the safety of a 14 day infusion of sodium nitrite, and to study the pharmacokinetics of nitrite, during a 14 day infusion in patients with ruptured c...
This study will determine if administration of sodium nitrite is safe and can improve small vessel blood flow and tissue oxygenation when given as an additional treatment in patients with ...
An exploratory study investigating the direct application of potassium nitrate solutions of different concentrations in reducing dentine hypersensitivity.
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a FLAVOPROTEIN that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM and is involved in the first step of nitrate assimilation in PLANTS; FUNGI; and BACTERIA. It was formerly classified as EC 188.8.131.52.
An iron-sulfur and MOLYBDENUM containing FLAVOPROTEIN that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. This enzyme can use either NAD or NADP as cofactors. It is a key enzyme that is involved in the first step of nitrate assimilation in PLANTS; FUNGI; and BACTERIA. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 184.108.40.206.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a cytochrome protein that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate in the presence of NADP+. It is a FLAVOPROTEIN that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 220.127.116.11 and should not be confused with the enzyme NITRATE REDUCTASE (NAD(P)H).
A process facilitated by specialized bacteria involving the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate.