Phage display: Concept, innovations, applications and future.
Summary of "Phage display: Concept, innovations, applications and future."
Phage display is the technology that allows expression of exogenous (poly)peptides on the surface of phage particles. The concept is simple in principle: a library of phage particles expressing a wide diversity of peptides is used to select those that bind the desired target. The filamentous phage M13 is the most commonly used vector to create random peptide display libraries. Several methods including recombinant techniques have been developed to increase the diversity of the library. On the other extreme, libraries with various biases can be created for specific purposes. For instance, when the sequence of the peptide that binds the target is known, its affinity and selectivity can be increased by screening libraries created with limited mutagenesis of the peptide. Phage libraries are screened for binding to synthetic or native targets. The initial screening of library by basic biopanning has been extended to column chromatography including negative screening and competition between selected phage clones to identify high affinity ligands with greater target specificity. The rapid isolation of specific ligands by phage display is advantageous in many applications including selection of inhibitors for the active and allosteric sites of the enzymes, receptor agonists and antagonists, and G-protein binding modulatory peptides. Phage display has been used in epitope mapping and analysis of protein-protein interactions. The specific ligands isolated from phage libraries can be used in therapeutic target validation, drug design and vaccine development. Phage display can also be used in conjunction with other methods. The past innovations and those to come promise a bright future for this field.
Department of Medicine, HSC 4N41 McMaster Univ, 1200 Main Street W., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8N3Z5.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Biotechnology advances
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20659548
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2010.07.004
Bacteriophages have been exploited as cloning vectors and display vehicles for decades owing to their genetic and structural simplicity. In bipartite display setting, phage takes on the role of a hand...
Historically filamentous bacteriophage have been known to be the workhorse of phage display due to their ability to link genotype to phenotype. More recently, the filamentous phage scaffold has proven...
Historically, bacteriophages infecting their hosts have perhaps been best known and even notorious for being a nuisance in dairy-fermentation processes. However, with the rapid progress in molecular m...
Innovations in biological evolution and in technology have many common features. Some of them involve similar processes, such as trial and error and horizontal information transfer. Others describe an...
A target-unrelated peptide (TUP) can arise in phage display selection experiments as a result of a propagation advantage exhibited by the phage clone displaying the peptide. We previously charactertiz...
To assess the clinical utility of the graphical medication monitor, results of the anesthetics for which the display was present will be compared to the results of the anesthetics in which...
The study objective is to evaluate the performance and reliability of minor design changes to the system components. Data collected from this study will enable the development of future a...
The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is a positive correlation between an evidence based clinical nutrition concept and relevant clinical outcomes in malnourished hospit...
The purpose of this study is to determine the antioxidant supplementation effect on accommodation among visual display terminal (VDT) users.
The purpose of this study is to support the development of Given® Diagnostic System applications.
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
The visual display of data in a man-machine system. An example is when data is called from the computer and transmitted to a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY or LIQUID CRYSTAL display.
Bacteriophages whose genetic material is RNA, which is single-stranded in all except the Pseudomonas phage phi 6 (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6). All RNA phages infect their host bacteria via the host's surface pili. Some frequently encountered RNA phages are: BF23, F2, R17, fr, PhiCb5, PhiCb12r, PhiCb8r, PhiCb23r, 7s, PP7, Q beta phage, MS2 phage, and BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.
Specific loci on both the bacterial DNA (attB) and the phage DNA (attP) which delineate the sites where recombination takes place between them, as the phage DNA becomes integrated (inserted) into the BACTERIAL DNA during LYSOGENY.
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
The attempt to improve the PHENOTYPES of future generations of the human population by fostering the reproduction of those with favorable phenotypes and GENOTYPES and hampering or preventing BREEDING by those with "undesirable" phenotypes and genotypes. The concept is largely discredited. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)