Expression of β-defensin-4 in "an in vivo and ex vivo model" of human osteoarthritic knee meniscus.
Summary of "Expression of β-defensin-4 in "an in vivo and ex vivo model" of human osteoarthritic knee meniscus."
To investigate, for the first time, the expression of β-defensins-4, by immunohistochemistry and western blotting, in OA meniscus versus control meniscus, thus providing new insights into the physiological processes of meniscus repairing.
β-defensins-4 was studied in vivo, in knee osteoarthritic menisci obtained from 30 patients (20 men and 10 women) who underwent isolated arthroscopic partial medial or lateral meniscectomy, and in vitro on fibrochondrocyte cells from human OA knee menisci. The study was conducted using morphological, immunohistochemical, and Western blot analysis.
The histological results demonstrated structural alterations and cracks of OA menisci accompanied by a very strong β-defensin-4 immunohistochemical staining. The Western blot analysis confirmed also a strong expression of β-defensin-4 in OA fibrochondrocyte cells.
The present study suggests an activation of β-defensin-4 induction, in human knee meniscus induced by the OA inflammatory process. It may represent an endogenous antibiotic defense mechanism accompanied by an intrinsic effort of tissue remodeling in OA articular joints. In conclusion, the present paper suggests the clinical relevance of β-defensin-4 in the prospective of future alternative medical treatment for OA.
Department of Bio-Medical Sciences, Human Anatomy Section, University of Catania, Via S. Sofia 87, 95123, Catania, Italy, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Knee surgery, sports traumatology, arthroscopy : official journal of the ESSKA
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21879330
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00167-011-1630-x
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.
The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
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