Anemia in children with chronic kidney disease.
Summary of "Anemia in children with chronic kidney disease."
Anemia is a common comorbidity in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This condition is associated with multiple adverse clinical consequences and its management is a core component of nephrology care. Increased morbidity and mortality, increased risk of cardiovascular disease and decreased quality of life have been associated with anemia of CKD in children. Although numerous complex factors interact in the development of this anemia, erythropoietin deficiency and iron dysregulation (including iron deficiency and iron-restricted erythropoiesis) are the primary causes. In addition to iron supplementation, erythropoietin-stimulating agents (ESAs) can effectively treat this anemia, but there are important differences in ESA dose requirements between children and adults. Also, hyporesponsiveness to ESA therapy is a common problem in children with CKD. Although escalating ESA doses to target increased hemoglobin values in adults has been associated with adverse outcomes, no studies have demonstrated this association in children. The question of appropriate target hemoglobin levels in children, and the approach by which to achieve these levels, remains under debate. Randomized, controlled studies are needed to evaluate whether normalization of hemoglobin concentrations is beneficial to children, and whether this practice is associated with increased risks.
Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 200 N. Wolfe Street, Room 3064, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Nature reviews. Nephrology
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21894183
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrneph.2011.115
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level for more than three months. Chronic kidney insufficiency is classified by five stages according to the decline in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA). The most severe form is the end-stage renal disease (CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE). (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002)
Kidney Failure, Chronic
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
Equine Infectious Anemia
Viral disease of horses caused by the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV; INFECTIOUS ANEMIA VIRUS, EQUINE). It is characterized by intermittent fever, weakness, and anemia. Chronic infection consists of acute episodes with remissions.
Anemia, Sickle Cell
A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.
Abnormal enlargement or swelling of a KIDNEY due to dilation of the KIDNEY CALICES and the KIDNEY PELVIS. It is often associated with obstruction of the URETER or chronic kidney diseases that prevents normal drainage of urine into the URINARY BLADDER.
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