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Well differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the stomach (gastric carcinoid tumors) are observed more often, with a tenfold increase in the US in the last 30 - 35 years, and the prognosis has improved greatly in that time. Nowadays most carcinoids of the stomach are diagnosed at an early stage. Four types of gastric NETs have been proposed and recognition of the type is important for defining the diagnostic approach and treatment. Often gastric NETs (especially type 1) are found incidentally during a gastroscopy performed for other reasons; most of these NETs are smaller than 20 mm in size. Conservative management and endoscopic surveillance is adequate for well differentiated, multifocal gastric carcinoids (type 1 or type 2 gastric NETs) that are less than 10 - 20 mm in diameter, unless they show angioinvasion, infiltrate the muscular wall, or have a proliferation rate above 2 %. Endoscopic ultrasound is the method of choice to determine tumor size and depth of infiltration. It is essential to distinguish between multifocal (types 1 and 2) and unifocal type 3 or type 4 gastric NETs, since surgery is indicated for type 3 gastric NETs larger than 10 mm in diameter and for poorly differentiated (localized) neuroendocrine gastric carcinomas (type 4 gastric NET). For optimal management, the type, biology, and stage of the tumor as well as the individual situation of the patient must be considered. Most patients with well differentiated gastric NETs can be treated conservatively and be followed up with endoscopic surveillance.
Klinik für Gastroenterologie und GI Onkologie, Vivantes Klinikum Am Urban, Berlin, Germany.
This article was published in the following journal.
The current WHO classification of neuroendocrine tumors (NET) differentiates between typical carcinoids (low grade NET), atypical carcinoids (intermediate grade NET) and small cell and large cell carc...
Gastric neuroendocrine tumors (GNETs) are rare and classified into three types by disease etiology and typical behavior.
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A group of carcinomas which share a characteristic morphology, often being composed of clusters and trabecular sheets of round "blue cells", granular chromatin, and an attenuated rim of poorly demarcated cytoplasm. Neuroendocrine tumors include carcinoids, small ("oat") cell carcinomas, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Merkel cell tumor, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic islet cell tumors, and pheochromocytoma. Neurosecretory granules are found within the tumor cells. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.
Surgical procedure in which the STOMACH is transected high on the body. The resulting small proximal gastric pouch is joined to any parts of the SMALL INTESTINE by an end-to-side SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS, depending on the amounts of intestinal surface being bypasses. This procedure is used frequently in the treatment of MORBID OBESITY by limiting the size of functional STOMACH, food intake, and food absorption.
A 38-kDa integral membrane glycoprotein of the presynaptic vesicles in neuron and neuroendocrine cells. It is expressed by a variety of normal and neoplastic neuroendocrine cells and is therefore used as an immunocytochemical marker for neuroendocrine differentiation in various tumors. In ALZHEIMER DISEASE and other dementing disorders, there is an important synapse loss due in part to a decrease of synaptophysin in the presynaptic vesicles.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
Radiology is the branch of medicine that studies imaging of the body; X-ray (basic, angiography, barium swallows), ultrasound, MRI, CT and PET. These imaging techniques can be used to diagnose, but also to treat a range of conditions, by allowing visuali...