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The antiherpes effects of the crude extract obtained from Ilex paraguariensis leaves (yerba mate) and their purified fractions were investigated. The most active fraction was selected and assayed to determine the viral multiplication steps upon which it acted. In order to detect the major components of this fraction, thin layer chromatography (TLC) analysis was performed. The antiviral activity was evaluated against HSV-1 and HSV-2 by a viral plaque number reduction assay (IC(50) ) and the cytotoxicity by a MTT assay (CC(50) ). According to the obtained results, all tested samples showed antiherpes activity at noncytotoxic concentrations, and the ethyl acetate fraction was the most active (SI = CC(50) /IC(50) = 188.7 and 264.7 for HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively). The results also demonstrated that this fraction exerts antiviral activity by the reduction of viral infectivity, the inhibition of virus entry into cells and cell-to-cell virus spread, as well as by the impaired levels of ICP27, ICP4, gD and gE proteins of HSV-1. The TLC analysis showed that this fraction contains monodesmosidic triterpenoid saponins, matesaponin-1 (a bidesmosidic one), caffeic and chlorogenic acids and rutin, which suggests that they could act synergistically and be responsible for the detected antiherpes activity. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, UFSC, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Phytotherapy research : PTR
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Trans-acting protein that combines with host factors to induce immediate early gene transcription in herpes simplex virus.
A cellular transcriptional coactivator that was originally identified by its requirement for the stable assembly IMMEDIATE-EARLY PROTEINS of the HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS. It is a nuclear protein that is a transcriptional coactivator for a number of transcription factors including VP16 PROTEIN; GA-BINDING PROTEIN; EARLY GROWTH RESPONSE PROTEIN 2; and E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. It also interacts with and stabilizes HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS PROTEIN VMW65 and helps regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES in HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS.
Infection of the genitals (GENITALIA) with HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS in either the males or the females.
A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)
Herpes simplex, caused by type 1 virus, primarily spread by oral secretions and usually occurring as a concomitant of fever. It may also develop in the absence of fever or prior illness. It commonly involves the facial region, especially the lips and the nares. (Dorland, 27th ed.)
An assay is an analytic procedure for qualitatively assessing or quantitatively measuring the presence or amount or the functional activity of a target entity. This can be a drug or biochemical substance or a cell in an organism or organic sample. ...