BCG response prediction with cytokine gene variants and bladder cancer: where we are?
Summary of "BCG response prediction with cytokine gene variants and bladder cancer: where we are?"
Bladder cancer (BC) is one of the most widespread cancers afflicting men and women and also has major philosophical impact on health care worldwide. Despite elaborate characterization of the risk factors and treatment options, BC is still a major epidemiological problem worldwide and its incidence lingers to upswing each year. Over the last three decades, intravesical immunotherapy with the biological response modifier Mycobacterium bovis-Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) has been established as the most effective adjuvant treatment for averting local recurrences and tumor progression following transurethral resection of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. DESIGN AND
PUBMED database was searched for articles, and manuscripts were selected that provided data regarding the correlation of BCG therapy and its response with different cytokine gene variants.
It is not clear how Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) works to treat BC. It may stimulate an immune response or cause inflammation of the bladder wall that destroys cancer cells within the bladder. Lot of reports indicated the correlation of various cytokines with respect to BCG therapy in BC, but the exact mechanism is under debate.
Research continues to establish the most effectual strain of BCG and the best dosage schedule for the treatment for bladder cancer but, on the other hand, a very critical part of this therapy to find out the correlation of different cytokine with BCG therapy, which will give a better insights not only the mechanism but also a better therapeutic options.
Andrology and IVF Laboratories, University of Utah, Salt lake city, UT, 84108, USA.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21932129
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00432-011-1056-3
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
A HERNIA-like condition in which the weakened pelvic muscles cause the URINARY BLADDER to drop from its normal position. Fallen urinary bladder is more common in females with the bladder dropping into the VAGINA and less common in males with the bladder dropping into the SCROTUM.
A cytokine receptor that acts through the formation of oligomeric complexes of itself with a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.