An update on ethnic differences in drug metabolism and toxicity from anti-cancer drugs.
Summary of "An update on ethnic differences in drug metabolism and toxicity from anti-cancer drugs."
Introduction: Based on recent emerging evidence of inter-ethnic differences in drug response and toxicity, ethnic diversity in pharmacokinetics, pharmacogenomics and clinical outcomes are being increasingly investigated. Ultimately, this will promote improved understanding of inter-individual differences in the pharmacokinetics and tolerance of cytotoxic drugs. Areas covered: This article reviews potential explanations for the observed ethnic differences in treatment outcomes and provides clinical data to support this concept. A literature search was implemented on PubMed and PharmGKB to investigate the areas of ethnic differences in pharmacogenomics, pharmacogenetics and clinical outcomes of cancer therapies. Expert opinion: There has been a relative paucity of clinical evidence linking genetic polymorphisms of genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes to the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and tolerance of anti-cancer drugs. Future research should focus on studies using large sample sizes, in the hope that they will provide results of high clinical significance. Due to the potential for ethnic differences to impact on both toxicities and benefits of systemic cancer therapies, the development of new therapeutic agents should include patients from diverse geographical ancestries in each phase of drug development.
The University of Sydney, Concord Repatriation General Hospital, Sydney Cancer Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Concord, NSW, Sydney, 2139 , Australia.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Expert opinion on drug metabolism & toxicology
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21950349
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17425255.2011.624513
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.
Drug Delivery Systems
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
The effect of herbs, other PLANTS, or PLANT EXTRACTS on the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of drugs.
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