Update on the Management of Acute Decompensated Heart Failure.
Summary of "Update on the Management of Acute Decompensated Heart Failure."
Treatment goals of acute decompensated heart failure are to decrease congestion, afterload, and neurohormonal activation in order to improve hemodynamics and symptoms and, perhaps, reduce in-hospital events, re-hospitalizations, and mortality while avoiding toxicities of therapy such as hypotension, arrhythmias, and renal dysfunction. Relief of congestion through intravenous loop diuretics is a mainstay of therapy. In cases where diuretics are not effective, ultrafiltration may be used to achieve euvolemia. Beta-blockers should be continued or reduced in dose at admission but should not typically be held. In patients with normotensive or hypertensive heart failure, afterload reduction with vasodilators should be instituted at presentation. Choice of a particular agent such as nitroglycerin, nitroprusside, or nesiritide depends on patient characteristics such as presence of ischemia, degree of congestion, and renal function. Nitroprusside may be preferable in patients with congestion and low cardiac output, but with caution in patients with significant hypotension. Intravenous inotropes/inodilators, such as dobutamine and milrinone, should be limited to hypotensive patients with evidence of poor tissue perfusion. Milrinone may be preferable in patients who have significant pulmonary venous hypertension. In patients who do not respond to initial medical therapy and who are candidates for either cardiac transplantation or destination left ventricular assist device, mechanical circulatory support should be considered early, prior to the development of end-organ damage.
University of California, San Francisco, Box 0131, 505 Parnassus Ave., Room U127a, San Francisco, CA, 94143, USA, DMajure@medicine.ucsf.edu.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Current treatment options in cardiovascular medicine
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21976129
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11936-011-0149-2
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Nitric Oxide Donors
A diverse group of agents, with unique chemical structures and biochemical requirements, which generate NITRIC OXIDE. These compounds have been used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and the management of acute myocardial infarction, acute and chronic congestive heart failure, and surgical control of blood pressure. (Adv Pharmacol 1995;34:361-81)
Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.
A cardiotonic glycoside obtained mainly from Digitalis lanata; it consists of three sugars and the aglycone DIGOXIGENIN. Digoxin has positive inotropic and negative chronotropic activity. It is used to control ventricular rate in ATRIAL FIBRILLATION and in the management of congestive heart failure with atrial fibrillation. Its use in congestive heart failure and sinus rhythm is less certain. The margin between toxic and therapeutic doses is small. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p666)
A severe irreversible decline in the ability of kidneys to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ELECTROLYTE BALANCE; BLOOD PRESSURE; and CALCIUM metabolism. Renal failure, either acute (KIDNEY FAILURE, ACUTE) or chronic (KIDNEY FAILURE, CHRONIC), requires HEMODIALYSIS.
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