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Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Adipose tissue secretes various bioactive molecules, referred to as adipokines, whose dysregulation can mediate changes in glucose homeostasis and inflammatory responses. Here, we identify C1qdc2/CTRP12 as an insulin-sensitizing adipokine that is abundantly expressed by fat tissues and designate this adipokine as adipolin (adipose-derived insulin-sensitizing factor). Adipolin expression in adipose tissue and plasma was reduced in rodent models of obesity. Adipolin expression was also decreased in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes by treatment with inducers of endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation. Systemic administration of adipolin ameliorated glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in diet-induced obese mice. Adipolin administration also reduced macrophage accumulation and proinflammatory gene expression in the adipose tissue of obese mice. Conditioned medium from adipolin-expressing cells diminished the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in response to stimulation with LPS or TNFα in cultured macrophages. These data suggest that adipolin functions as an anti-inflammatory adipokine that exerts beneficial actions on glucose metabolism. Therefore, adipolin represents a new target molecule for the treatment of insulin resistance and diabetes.
From the Departments of Cardiology and.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The Journal of biological chemistry
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An autophagy related protein which functions as a core subunit of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL 3-KINASE MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES. It mediates the formation of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate and functions in AUTOPHAGY, where it is required for maturation of the AUTOPHAGOSOME. It also functions in ENDOCYTOSIS and CYTOKINESIS as part of a separate complex. Beclin-1 associates with INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES and interacts with the PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-BCL-2 and BCL-X PROTEIN.
Cell surface receptors for ADIPOKINES, cytokines secreted by the ADIPOCYTES.
Discrete protein structural units that may fold independently of the rest of the protein and have their own functions.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.
A suppressor of cytokine signaling protein that consists of an N-terminal kinase-inhibitory region, a central SH2 DOMAIN, a characteristic C-terminal SOCS box (a 40-amino acid motif, which functions to recruit E3 UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASE COMPLEXES). SOCS3 inhibits cytokine signaling by binding to RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES as well as CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130; ERYTHROPOIETIN RECEPTORS; INSULIN RECEPTOR; and the LEPTIN RECEPTOR. Its functions include suppression of ERYTHROPOIESIS in the fetal liver.
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