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Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Adipose tissue secretes various bioactive molecules, referred to as adipokines, whose dysregulation can mediate changes in glucose homeostasis and inflammatory responses. Here, we identify C1qdc2/CTRP12 as an insulin-sensitizing adipokine that is abundantly expressed by fat tissues and designate this adipokine as adipolin (adipose-derived insulin-sensitizing factor). Adipolin expression in adipose tissue and plasma was reduced in rodent models of obesity. Adipolin expression was also decreased in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes by treatment with inducers of endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation. Systemic administration of adipolin ameliorated glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in diet-induced obese mice. Adipolin administration also reduced macrophage accumulation and proinflammatory gene expression in the adipose tissue of obese mice. Conditioned medium from adipolin-expressing cells diminished the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in response to stimulation with LPS or TNFα in cultured macrophages. These data suggest that adipolin functions as an anti-inflammatory adipokine that exerts beneficial actions on glucose metabolism. Therefore, adipolin represents a new target molecule for the treatment of insulin resistance and diabetes.
From the Departments of Cardiology and.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The Journal of biological chemistry
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An autophagy related protein which functions as a core subunit of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL 3-KINASE MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES. It mediates the formation of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate and functions in AUTOPHAGY, where it is required for maturation of the AUTOPHAGOSOME. It also functions in ENDOCYTOSIS and CYTOKINESIS as part of a separate complex. Beclin-1 associates with INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES and interacts with the PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-BCL-2 and BCL-X PROTEIN.
Cell surface receptors for ADIPOKINES, cytokines secreted by the ADIPOCYTES.
Discrete protein structural units that may fold independently of the rest of the protein and have their own functions.
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