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Biological materials generally require stabilization to retain activity or viability in a dry form. A number of industrial products, such as vaccines, probiotics and biopesticides have been produced as dry preparations. The same methods and materials used for stabilizing commercial microbial products may be applicable to preserving biothreat pathogens in a dry form. This is a likely step that may be encountered when looking at samples from terrorism attempts since only spores, such as those from Bacillus anthracis, are inherently stable when dried. The stabilizers for microbial preparations generally include one or more small carbohydrates. Different formulations have been reported for different industrial products and are often determined empirically. However sugar alcohols (mannitol and sorbitol) and disaccharides (lactose, sucrose and trehalose) are the common constituents of these formulations. We have developed an analytical method for sample preparation and detection of these simple carbohydrates using two complementary analytical tools, MALDI-MS and GC-MS. The native carbohydrates and other constituents of the formulation are detected by MALDI-MS as a screening tool. A longer and more detailed analysis is then used to specifically identify the carbohydrates by derivatization and GC-MS detection. Both techniques were tested against ten different types of stabilization recipes with Yersinia pestis cell mass cultured on different media types used as the biological component. A number of additional components were included in these formulations including proteins and peptides from serum or milk, polymers (e.g. poly vinyl pyrrolidone - PVP) and detergents (e.g. Tween). The combined method was characterized to determine several figures of merit. The accuracy of the method was 98% for MALDI-MS and 100% for GC-MS. The repeatability for detection of carbohydrates by MALDI-MS was determined to be 96%. The repeatability of compound identification by GC-MS was determined by monitoring variation in retention time, which is vital for identification of isomeric carbohydrates. The figures of merit illustrate an effective and accurate method for mono and disaccharide detection independent of formulation. This meets our primary goal for method development as small carbohydrates are among the most common stabilizers employed.
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352, USA.
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This review is the seventh update of the original article published in 1999 on the application of MALDI mass spectrometry to the analysis of carbohydrates and glycoconjugates and brings coverage of th...
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RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.
Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A ubiquitously-expressed cysteine protease that plays an enzymatic role in POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN PROCESSING of proteins within SECRETORY GRANULES.
Neuroendocrine cells in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY. They produce MELANOCYTE STIMULATING HORMONES and other peptides from the post-translational processing of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC).
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