Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
Nonmedical use and abuse of prescription opioids is an increasing public health problem. Intravenous (IV) administration of opioid analgesics intended for oral use is not uncommon; yet, little is known about the relative abuse potential of these drugs when administered intravenously to recreational opioid abusers without physical dependence.
This inpatient study employed a double-blind, randomized, within-subject, placebo-controlled design to examine the relative abuse potential of IV doses of oxycodone, hydrocodone, and morphine. Nine healthy adult participants reporting recreational opioid use and histories of IV opioid use completed 11 experimental sessions, including one active-dose practice session. IV doses were infused over 5 min and included three identical doses of each opioid (5, 10, and 20 mg/10 ml) and saline placebo. Physiological, subjective, and performance effects were collected before and for 6 h after drug administration.
All three opioids produced prototypical mu agonist effects (e.g., miosis; increased ratings of liking) that were generally dose-related. Pharmacodynamic effects were observed within 5 min of IV administration. Physiological effects were more prolonged than subjective effects for all three drugs. While the magnitude of effects was generally comparable across drugs and qualitatively similar, valid potency assays indicated the following potency relationship: oxycodone > morphine > hydrocodone.
There were modest potency differences between oxycodone, hydrocodone, and morphine, but their overall profile of effects was similar, indicating significant abuse potential when administered intravenously.
Department of Behavioral Science, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, 140 Medical Behavioral Science Building, Lexington, KY, 40536-0086, USA, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Immediate-release (IR) hydrocodone is the most widely prescribed opioid in the United States; however, little is known about the utilization patterns and duration of opioid use among patients prescrib...
Serious infection is a recognized complication of intravenous drug abuse and a major cause of morbidity and mortality among intravenous drug users. Trends in rates of serious infection and the associa...
This study sought to compare the effects of Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.) Havil. extract, alkaloids fraction, and mitragynine, a μ-opioid receptor agonist, to that of morphine and oxycodone in a test o...
Although estrous cycle has been reported to influence antiociceptive effect of morphine in several pain conditions, its effect on cancer pain is not well established. We investigated the effect of est...
Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a common and difficult illness to manage. Some individuals with CLBP have pain processing disorders and are also at risk for opioid abuse, misuse; addiction and diversi...
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the abuse potential and safety of samidorphan in healthy, non-dependent, adult, recreational opioid users.
The primary objective of this study is to compare the relative abuse potential of two different doses of orally administered Acurox Tablets to orally administered immediate-release (IR) ox...
The purpose of this study is to assess the abuse potential of CL-108 tablets, including the abuse deterrent effects of promethazine, following oral administration, relative to hydrocodone/...
The purpose of this study is: (1) to assess the effect of oxycodone HCl on niacin-induced dysphoric effects when oxycodone HCl is administered in combination with niacin in subjects with a...
1. Characterize the relative abuse liability of a short versus a long acting opioid in chronic pain patients. 2. Demonstrate that opioid-induced hyperalgesia differs among prescrip...
A synthetic opioid that is used as the hydrochloride. It is an opioid analgesic that is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. It has actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE. It also has a depressant action on the cough center and may be given to control intractable cough associated with terminal lung cancer. Methadone is also used as part of the treatment of dependence on opioid drugs, although prolonged use of methadone itself may result in dependence. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1082-3)
An opioid analgesic made from MORPHINE and used mainly as an analgesic. It has a shorter duration of action than morphine.
A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Mu opioid receptors bind, in decreasing order of affinity, endorphins, dynorphins, met-enkephalin, and leu-enkephalin. They have also been shown to be molecular receptors for morphine.
Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.
A derivative of the opioid alkaloid THEBAINE that is a more potent and longer lasting analgesic than MORPHINE. It appears to act as a partial agonist at mu and kappa opioid receptors and as an antagonist at delta receptors. The lack of delta-agonist activity has been suggested to account for the observation that buprenorphine tolerance may not develop with chronic use.
Alternative Medicine Cleft Palate Complementary & Alternative Medicine Congenital Diseases Dentistry Ear Nose & Throat Food Safety Geriatrics Healthcare Hearing Medical Devices MRSA Muscular Dyst...
Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...
Clinical Approvals Clinical Trials Drug Approvals Drug Delivery Drug Discovery Generics Drugs Prescription Drugs In the fields of medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology, drug discovery is the process by which drugs are dis...