Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
Lung disease due to Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) organisms is increasing. A greater understanding of the host immune response to MAC organisms will provide a foundation to develop novel therapies for these recalcitrant infections. IL-32 is a newly described pro-inflammatory cytokine that enhances host immunity against various microbial pathogens. Cytokines that induce IL-32 such as interferon-gamma, IL-18, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha are of considerable importance to mycobacterial immunity. We performed immunohistochemistry and morphometric analysis to quantify IL-32 expression in the lungs of 11 patients with MAC lung disease and 10 controls with normal lung tissues. After normalizing for basement membrane length, there was a profound increase in IL-32 expression in the airway epithelial cells of the MAC-infected lungs compared with controls. Following normalization for alveolar surface area, there was a trend toward increased IL-32 expression in type II alveolar cells and alveolar macrophages in the lungs of MAC patients. Human airway epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) infected with M. avium produced IL-32 by a nuclear factor-kappa B-dependent mechanism. In both BEAS-2B cells and human monocyte-derived macrophages, exogenous IL-32γ significantly reduced the growth of intracellular M. avium. This finding was corroborated by an increase in the number of intracellular M. avium recovered from THP-1 monocytes silenced for endogenous IL-32 expression. The anti-mycobacterial effect of IL-32 may be due, in part, to increased apoptosis of infected cells. These findings indicate that IL-32 facilitates host defense against MAC organisms but may also contribute to the airway inflammation associated with MAC pulmonary disease.
Department of Medicine, Denver Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Denver, CO 80220, USA.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: International immunology
Airway epithelial cells derived from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are expected to be a useful source for the regeneration of airway epithelium. Our preliminary study of embryoid body (EB) form...
CD8+ T-cells are located in the small airways of COPD patients and may contribute to pathophysiology. CD8+ cells express the chemokine receptor, CXCR3 that binds CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11, which are el...
The airway epithelial cell plays a central role in coordinating the pulmonary response to injury and inflammation. Here, transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) activates gene expression programs to ind...
There is rising interest in how obesity affects respiratory diseases, since epidemiological findings indicate a strong relationship between the two conditions. Leptin is a potent adipokine produced ma...
Induction of mucus hypersecretion in the airway epithelium by Th2 cytokines is associated with the expression of TMEM16A, a Ca2+-activated Cl- channel. We asked whether exposure of airway epithelial c...
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of azithromycin administered once a week in the prevention of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) in severely immunocompromised HIV-infected ...
The primary objectives of this trial are: To compare the safety of oral rifabutin versus placebo in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) bacteremia in AIDS patients with CD4 ...
To determine whether clarithromycin is safe and effective in preventing disseminated Mycobacterium avium Complex in HIV-infected patients with CD4 counts
To optimize Mycobacterium avium Complex (MAC) prophylaxis in AIDS patients by measuring serum rifabutin levels and adjusting the dose accordingly. To combine rifabutin with ethambutol to e...
The primary objective of this trial is to assess the safety and the relative benefit of rifabutin monotherapy in preventing or delaying the incidence of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) b...
A nontuberculous infection when occurring in humans. It is characterized by pulmonary disease, lymphadenitis in children, and systemic disease in AIDS patients. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection of birds and swine results in tuberculosis.
A complex that includes several strains of M. avium. M. intracellulare is not easily distinguished from M. avium and therefore is included in the complex. These organisms are most frequently found in pulmonary secretions from persons with a tuberculous-like mycobacteriosis. Strains of this complex have also been associated with childhood lymphadenitis and AIDS; M. avium alone causes tuberculosis in a variety of birds and other animals, including pigs.
A broad-spectrum antibiotic that is being used as prophylaxis against disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection in HIV-positive patients.
A bacterium causing tuberculosis in domestic fowl and other birds. In pigs, it may cause localized and sometimes disseminated disease. The organism occurs occasionally in sheep and cattle. It should be distinguished from the M. avium complex, which infects primarily humans.
A variety of TUBERCULOSIS affecting various birds, including chickens and ducks. It is caused by MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM and characterized by tubercles consisting principally of epithelioid cells.
Pulmonary relating to or associated with the lungs eg Asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, COPD, Cystic Fibrosis, Influenza, Lung Cancer, Pneumonia, Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension, Sleep Disorders etc Follow and track Lung Cancer News ...
Cytokine Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF)
TNF is a compound that is classified as a cytokine which plays a central role in the cellular mechanisms of apoptosis or cell death. However, there are a number of different kinds of TNF, just under twenty, but the family of molecules have very similar a...
Allergies Automimmune Disease Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Immunology Vaccine Immunology is the study of immunity and the defence mechanisms of the body. A greater understanding of immunology is needed to develop vaccines, understand ...