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Fluid and electrolyte management is challenging for clinicians, as electrolytes shift in a variety of settings and disease states and are dependent on osmotic changes and fluid balance. The development of a plan for managing fluid and electrolyte abnormalities should start with correcting the underlying condition. In most cases, this is followed by an assessment of fluid balance with the goal of achieving euvolemia. After fluid status is understood and/or corrected, electrolyte imbalances are simplified. Many equations are available to aid clinicians in providing safe recommendations or at least to give a starting point for correcting the abnormalities. However, these equations do not take into consideration the vast differences between clinical scenarios, thus making electrolyte management more challenging. The supplementation plan, whether delivered intravenously or orally, must include an assessment of renal and gastrointestinal function, as most guidelines are established under the assumption of normal digestion, absorption and excretion. After the plan is developed, frequent monitoring is vital to regain homeostasis. A fluid and electrolyte management plan developed by a multidisciplinary team is advantageous in promoting continuity of care and producing safe outcomes.
Intestinal Rehabilitation and Transplant Program, Center for Human Nutrition, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: JPEN. Journal of parenteral and enteral nutrition
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An element that is in the alkali group of metals. It has an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte and it plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the water-electrolyte balance.
Mechanosensing organelles of hair cells which respond to fluid motion or fluid pressure changes. They have various functions in many different animals, but are primarily used in hearing.
Translocation of body fluids from one compartment to another, such as from the vascular to the interstitial compartments. Fluid shifts are associated with profound changes in vascular permeability and WATER-ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE. The shift can also be from the lower body to the upper body as in conditions of weightlessness.
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, etc., maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
Extracorporeal ultrafiltration technique without hemodialysis for treatment of fluid overload and electrolyte disturbances affecting renal, cardiac, or pulmonary function.
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