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Acute myocardial infarction (MI) and its sequelae are leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Nitroglycerin (glyceryl trinitrate [GTN]) remains a first-line treatment for angina pectoris and acute MI. Nitroglycerin achieves its benefit by giving rise to nitric oxide (NO), which causes vasodilation and increases blood flow to the myocardium. However, continuous delivery of GTN results in tolerance, limiting the use of this drug. Nitroglycerin tolerance is caused, at least in part, by inactivation of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), an enzyme that converts GTN to the vasodilator, NO. We recently found that in a MI model in animals, in addition to GTN's effect on the vasculature, sustained treatment negatively affected cardiomyocyte viability following ischemia, thus resulting in increased infarct size. Coadministration of Alda-1, an activator of ALDH2, with GTN improves metabolism of reactive aldehyde adducts and prevents the GTN-induced increase in cardiac dysfunction following MI. In this review, we describe the molecular mechanisms associated with the benefits and risks of GTN administration in MI.
Department of Chemical and Systems Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Circulation journal : official journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
Comparison of short-term clinical outcomes between ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing successful revascularization; from Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry-National Institute of Health.
Although ticagrelor has been well-known to improve clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) without increased bleeding risk, its clinical impacts have not been well establi...
Common ECG criteria such as ST-segment changes are of limited value in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and bundle branch block or wide QRS complex. A large proportion of thes...
Animal models have demonstrated that sulfonylureas increase the size of myocardial infarction; however, data in humans is scarce. This study evaluated the association between sulfonylurea use and infa...
The role of tenascin C in patients with acute myocardial infarction and type 2 diabetes mellitus still remains disputable today. The purpose of the study is to elaborate a model for the prediction of ...
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in patients with acute myocardial infarction. AKI in this setting is associated with short- and long-term adverse events. The aim of this study was to develop a sim...
The purpose of this study is to quantify the risk of hypotension due to field treatment with nitroglycerin in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction, particularly right ventricul...
The study is an open, single center, observational study at the Cardiology Dept at Uppsala University Hospital. The number of patients included will be 410. The objectives are to: Evaluat...
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The purpose of this observational study is to assess predictors of in-hospital mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction admitted to Belgian hospitals.
The purpose of this study is to test whether early pre-reperfusion metoprolol administration in patients suffering and acute myocardial infarction might reduce the size of myocardial necro...
MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION in which the anterior wall of the heart is involved. Anterior wall myocardial infarction is often caused by occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. It can be categorized as anteroseptal or anterolateral wall myocardial infarction.
MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION in which the inferior wall of the heart is involved. It is often caused by occlusion of the right coronary artery.
Laceration or tearing of cardiac tissues appearing after MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
A malformation that is characterized by a muscle bridge over a segment of the CORONARY ARTERIES. Systolic contractions of the muscle bridge can lead to narrowing of coronary artery; coronary compression; MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH.
An episode of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA that generally lasts longer than a transient anginal episode but that does not usually result in MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Acute Coronary Syndromes ACS
Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) is an umbrella term for situations where the blood supplied to the heart muscle is suddenly blocked. Treatment for acute coronary syndrome includes medicines and a procedure known as angioplasty, during which doctors inflat...
Pharmacy is the science and technique of preparing as well as dispensing drugs and medicines. It is a health profession that links health sciences with chemical sciences and aims to ensure the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs. The scope of...
Enzymes are proteins that catalyze (i.e., increase the rates of) chemical reactions. In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process, called substrates, are converted into different molecules, called products. Almost all chemical re...
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