Frontiers in Vitamin D ; Basic Research and Clinical Application. Vitamin D deficiency, insufficiency and sufficiency.
Summary of "Frontiers in Vitamin D ; Basic Research and Clinical Application. Vitamin D deficiency, insufficiency and sufficiency."
In November 2010, IOM (Institute of Medicine) of USA issued a report on DRI (Dietary Reference Intakes) for calcium and vitamin D, which challenged then widespread view among many in US that vitamin D sufficiency is defined by serum 25 (OH) D level more than 30 ng/mL. The IOM report concluded serum 25 (OH) D level of 20 ng/mL would be sufficient for 97.5% of general healthy population, and recommended vitamin D intake much lower than that had been believed among many experts. After much discussion, disputes, in July 2011, American Endocrine Society issued a guideline for Vitamin D deficiency, which contrasted to IOM report in many aspects. In this article, differences between those two guidelines are reviewed and current issues surrounding vitamin D deficiency/sufficiency are discussed.
Third Depatment of Medicine, Teikyo University Chiba Medical Center, Japan.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Clinical calcium
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Vitamin D Deficiency
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)
Vitamin E Deficiency
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN E in the diet, characterized by posterior column and spinocerebellar tract abnormalities, areflexia, ophthalmoplegia, and disturbances of gait, proprioception, and vibration. In premature infants vitamin E deficiency is associated with hemolytic anemia, thrombocytosis, edema, intraventricular hemorrhage, and increasing risk of retrolental fibroplasia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. An apparent inborn error of vitamin E metabolism, named familial isolated vitamin E deficiency, has recently been identified. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1181)
Vitamin A Deficiency
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN A in the diet, characterized by NIGHT BLINDNESS and other ocular manifestations such as dryness of the conjunctiva and later of the cornea (XEROPHTHALMIA). Vitamin A deficiency is a very common problem worldwide, particularly in developing countries as a consequence of famine or shortages of vitamin A-rich foods. In the United States it is found among the urban poor, the elderly, alcoholics, and patients with malabsorption. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1179)
Vitamin B 12 Deficiency
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 12 in the diet, characterized by megaloblastic anemia. Since vitamin B 12 is not present in plants, humans have obtained their supply from animal products, from multivitamin supplements in the form of pills, and as additives to food preparations. A wide variety of neuropsychiatric abnormalities is also seen in vitamin B 12 deficiency and appears to be due to an undefined defect involving myelin synthesis. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p848)
A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.
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