Induction of Immune Tolerance to a Therapeutic Protein by Intrathymic Gene Delivery.
Summary of "Induction of Immune Tolerance to a Therapeutic Protein by Intrathymic Gene Delivery."
The efficacy of recombinant enzyme therapy for genetic diseases is limited in some patients by the generation of a humoral immune response to the therapeutic protein. Inducing immune tolerance to the protein prior to treatment has the potential to increase therapeutic efficacy. Using an AAV8 vector encoding human acid alpha-glucosidase (hGAA), we have evaluated direct intrathymic injection for inducing tolerance. We have also compared the final tolerogenic states achieved by intrathymic and intravenous injection. Intrathymic vector delivery induced tolerance equivalent to that generated by intravenous delivery, but at a 25-fold lower dose, the thymic hGAA expression level was 10,000-fold lower than the liver expression necessary for systemic tolerance induction. Splenic regulatory T cells (Tregs) were apparent after delivery by both routes, but with different phenotypes. Intrathymic delivery resulted in Tregs with higher FoxP3, TGFbeta, and IL-10 mRNA levels. These differences may account for the differences noted in splenic T cells, where only intravenous delivery appeared to inhibit their activation. Our results imply that different mechanisms may be operating to generate immune tolerance by intrathymic and intravenous delivery of an AAV vector, and suggest that the intrathymic route may hold promise for decreasing the humoral immune response to therapeutic proteins in genetic disease indications.
Genzyme Corporation, Framingham, Massachusetts, USA.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20664526
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/mt.2010.164
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
The normal lack of the ability to produce an immunological response to autologous (self) antigens. A breakdown of self tolerance leads to autoimmune diseases. The ability to recognize the difference between self and non-self is the prime function of the immune system.
Gene Knockdown Techniques
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Hiv Core Protein P24
A major core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus encoded by the HIV gag gene. HIV-seropositive individuals mount a significant immune response to p24 and thus detection of antibodies to p24 is one basis for determining HIV infection by ELISA and Western blot assays. The protein is also being investigated as a potential HIV immunogen in vaccines.
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