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Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) is an optical phenomena generated by light when it interacts with conductive nanoparticles (NPs) that are smaller than the incident wavelength. As in surface plasmon resonance, the electric field of incident light can be deposited to collectively excite electrons of a conduction band, with the result being coherent localized plasmon oscillations with a resonant frequency that strongly depends on the composition, size, geometry, dielectric environment and separation distance of NPs. This review serves to describe the physical theory of LSPR formation at the surface of nanostructures, and the potential for this optical technology to serve as a basis for the development bioassays and biosensing of high sensitivity. The benefits and challenges associated with various experimental designs of nanoparticles and detection systems, as well as creative approaches that have been developed to improve sensitivity and limits of detection are highlighted using examples from the literature.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Analytica chimica acta
The discovery of the phenomena known as localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) has provided the basis for many research areas, ranging from materials science to biosensing. LSPR has since been vie...
Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) has emerged as a leader among label-free biosensing techniques in that it offers sensitive, robust, and facile detection. Traditional LSPR-based biosensing u...
Localized surface-plasmon resonance affects the optical absorption and scattering of nanosized materials. The intensities and peak energies of the surface plasmons strongly depend on the carrier densi...
Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is a label-free detection method which has emerged during the last two decades as a suitable and reliable platform in clinical analysis for biomolecular interactions. T...
The tunability of surface plasmon resonance can enable the highest degree of localised surface plasmon enhancement to be achieved, based on the emitting or absorbing wavelength. In this article, tunab...
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A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.
Review of the medical necessity of hospital or other health facility admissions, upon or within a short time following an admission, and periodic review of services provided during the course of treatment.
Formal programs for assessing drug prescription against some standard. Drug utilization review may consider clinical appropriateness, cost effectiveness, and, in some cases, outcomes. Review is usually retrospective, but some analysis may be done before drugs are dispensed (as in computer systems which advise physicians when prescriptions are entered). Drug utilization review is mandated for Medicaid programs beginning in 1993.
Organizations representing designated geographic areas which have contracts under the PRO program to review the medical necessity, appropriateness, quality, and cost-effectiveness of care received by Medicare beneficiaries. Peer Review Improvement Act, PL 97-248, 1982.
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.