Cancer vaccines and carbohydrate epitopes.
Summary of "Cancer vaccines and carbohydrate epitopes."
Tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACA) result from the aberrant glycosylation that is seen with transformation to a tumor cell. The carbohydrate antigens that have been found to be tumor-associated include the mucin related Tn, Sialyl Tn, and Thomsen-Friedenreich antigens, the blood group Lewis related Lewis(Y), Sialyl Lewis(X) and Sialyl Lewis(A), and Lewis(X) (also known as stage-specific embryonic antigen-1, SSEA-1), the glycosphingolipids Globo H and stage-specific embryonic antigen-3 (SSEA-3), the sialic acid containing glycosphingolipids, the gangliosides GD2, GD3, GM2, fucosyl GM1, and Neu5GcGM3, and polysialic acid. Recent developments have furthered our understanding of the T-independent type II response that is seen in response to carbohydrate antigens. The selection of a vaccine target antigen is based on not only the presence of the antigen in a variety of tumor tissues but also on the role this antigen plays in tumor growth and metastasis. These roles for TACAs are being elucidated. Newly acquired knowledge in understanding the T-independent immune response and in understanding the key roles that carbohydrates play in metastasis are being applied in attempts to develop an effective vaccine response to TACAs. The role of each of the above mentioned carbohydrate antigens in cancer growth and metastasis and vaccine attempts using these antigens will be described.
Department of Biochemistry, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, United States.
This article was published in the following journal.
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21964054
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.09.009
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
Herpes Simplex Virus Vaccines
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Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with DENGUE VIRUS. These include live-attenuated, subunit, DNA, and inactivated vaccines.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.
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