Adaptive clinical trials in oncology.
Summary of "Adaptive clinical trials in oncology."
Modern oncology drug development faces challenges very different from those of the past and it must adapt accordingly. The size and expense of phase III clinical trials continue to increase, but the success rate remains unacceptably low. Adaptive trial designs can make development more informative, addressing whether a drug is safe and effective while showing how it should be delivered and to whom. An adaptive design is one in which the accumulating data are used to modify the trial's course. Adaptive designs are ideal for addressing many questions at once. For example, a single trial might identify the appropriate patient population, dose and regimen, and therapeutic combinations, and then switch seamlessly into a phase III confirmatory trial. Adaptive designs rely on information, including from patients who have not achieved the trial's primary end point. Longitudinal models of biomarkers (including tumor burden assessed via imaging) enable predictions of primary end points. Taking a Bayesian perspective facilitates building an efficient and accurate trial, including using longitudinal information. A wholly new paradigm for drug development exemplifying personalized medicine is evinced by an adaptive trial called I-SPY2, in which drugs from many companies are evaluated in the same trial-a phase II screening process.
Department of Biostatistics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1400 Pressler Street, 4-5062 Pickens Academic Tower, Houston, TX 77030-1402, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Nature reviews. Clinical oncology
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22064459
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrclinonc.2011.165
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Work that is the report of a pre-planned clinical study of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques in humans selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. While most clinical trials concern humans, this publication type may be used for clinical veterinary articles meeting the requisites for humans. Specific headings for specific types and phases of clinical trials are also available.
Early Termination Of Clinical Trials
Earlier than planned termination of clinical trials.
Clinical Trials As Topic
Pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
Controlled Clinical Trials As Topic
Clinical trials involving one or more test treatments, at least one control treatment, specified outcome measures for evaluating the studied intervention, and a bias-free method for assigning patients to the test treatment. The treatment may be drugs, devices, or procedures studied for diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic effectiveness. Control measures include placebos, active medicines, no-treatment, dosage forms and regimens, historical comparisons, etc. When randomization using mathematical techniques, such as the use of a random numbers table, is employed to assign patients to test or control treatments, the trials are characterized as RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS AS TOPIC.
Clinical Trials Data Monitoring Committees
Committees established to review interim data and efficacy outcomes in clinical trials. The findings of these committees are used in deciding whether a trial should be continued as designed, changed, or terminated. Government regulations regarding federally-funded research involving human subjects (the "Common Rule") require (45 CFR 46.111) that research ethics committees reviewing large-scale clinical trials monitor the data collected using a mechanism such as a data monitoring committee. FDA regulations (21 CFR 50.24) require that such committees be established to monitor studies conducted in emergency settings.
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