Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
Blood-sucking leeches have been used for medical purposes in humans for hundreds of years. Accordingly, one of the most prominent species has been named Hirudo medicinalis by Carl Linne in 1758. Feeding on vertebrate blood poses some serious problems to blood-sucking ectoparasites, as they have to penetrate the body surface of the host and to suppress the normal reactions of the host to such injuries (swelling, pain, inflammation) to remain undetected during the feeding period. Furthermore, the parasites have to take measures to inhibit the normal reactions in host tissues to blood vessel damage, namely hemostasis and blood coagulation (platelet aggregation and activation, activation of thrombin and formation of fibrin clots). During evolution, leeches have acquired the ability to control these processes in their hosts by transferring various bioactive substances to the host. These substances are supposedly produced in unicellular salivary gland cells and injected into the wound at the feeding site through tiny salivary ductule openings in the jaws that the leech uses to slice open the host body surface and to cut blood vessels in the depth of the wound. This review summarizes current knowledge about the salivary gland cells and the biological effects of individual saliva components as well as hints to the potential usefulness of some of these compounds for medical purposes.
Animal Physiology and Biochemistry, Zoological Institute, Ernst Moritz Arndt-University, Biotechnikum, Walther Rathenau-Strasse 49 a, 17489, Greifswald, Germany, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Die Naturwissenschaften
During a blood meal, female sand flies, vectors of Leishmania parasites, inject saliva into the host skin. Sand fly saliva is composed of a large variety of components that exert different pharmacolog...
Salivary flow and composition have an impact on flavor perception. However, very few studies have explored the relationship between saliva, individual liking and usual dietary intake. The aim of our s...
Saliva can be collected non-invasively, repeatedly and without trained personnel. It is a promising diagnostic body fluid in clinical use in endocrinology and dentistry. Since decades, it is known tha...
Meningococcal conjugate vaccines induce serum antibodies crucial for protection against invasive disease. Salivary antibodies are believed to be important for hindering meningococcal acquisition and/o...
The aim of this study was to compare total IgA in the whole saliva of children with Down syndrome with levels in sibling and parent groups. IgA measurements were presented as the concentration in sali...
This study will follow patients with salivary gland dysfunction to identify the long-term course of this disorder and its effects on the mouth, oral function, and overall health. Saliva is...
This study will examine saliva samples from healthy volunteers and patients with various diseases to learn more about how disease affects the mouth and salivary glands. It will use a metho...
Oral complications during and after cancer treatment are common. A key role in maintaining oral health plays saliva. In the last decade numerous studies have investigated immunological bio...
The aim of this report was to evaluate the unstimulated whole saliva flow in patients with head and neck cancers during and after the exclusive radiotherapy with an association of lauryl-d...
Healthy volunteers are observationally wearing an intraoral device with bovine tooth samples once for two hours. Afterwards, Calcium release from the bovine enamel and dentin samples is me...
Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.
Any of the ducts which transport saliva. Salivary ducts include the parotid duct, the major and minor sublingual ducts, and the submandibular duct.
Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).
The discharge of saliva from the SALIVARY GLANDS that keeps the mouth tissues moist and aids in digestion.
Presence of small calculi in the terminal salivary ducts (salivary sand), or stones (larger calculi) found in the larger ducts.
An anesthesiologist (US English) or anaesthetist (British English) is a physician trained in anesthesia and perioperative medicine. Anesthesiologists are physicians who provide medical care to patients in a wide variety of (usually acute) situations. ...
Anything that breaks the skin is a wound because when the skin is broken, there's a risk of germs getting into the body and causing an infection. Follow and track Wound Care News on BioPortfolio: Wound Car...
Biological therapy involves the use of living organisms, substances derived from living organisms, or laboratory-produced versions of such substances to treat disease. Some biological therapies for cancer use vaccines or bacteria to stimulate the body&rs...