Small bite, large impact-saliva and salivary molecules in the medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis.
Summary of "Small bite, large impact-saliva and salivary molecules in the medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis."
Blood-sucking leeches have been used for medical purposes in humans for hundreds of years. Accordingly, one of the most prominent species has been named Hirudo medicinalis by Carl Linne in 1758. Feeding on vertebrate blood poses some serious problems to blood-sucking ectoparasites, as they have to penetrate the body surface of the host and to suppress the normal reactions of the host to such injuries (swelling, pain, inflammation) to remain undetected during the feeding period. Furthermore, the parasites have to take measures to inhibit the normal reactions in host tissues to blood vessel damage, namely hemostasis and blood coagulation (platelet aggregation and activation, activation of thrombin and formation of fibrin clots). During evolution, leeches have acquired the ability to control these processes in their hosts by transferring various bioactive substances to the host. These substances are supposedly produced in unicellular salivary gland cells and injected into the wound at the feeding site through tiny salivary ductule openings in the jaws that the leech uses to slice open the host body surface and to cut blood vessels in the depth of the wound. This review summarizes current knowledge about the salivary gland cells and the biological effects of individual saliva components as well as hints to the potential usefulness of some of these compounds for medical purposes.
Animal Physiology and Biochemistry, Zoological Institute, Ernst Moritz Arndt-University, Biotechnikum, Walther Rathenau-Strasse 49 a, 17489, Greifswald, Germany, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Die Naturwissenschaften
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22069059
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00114-011-0859-z
Carious tooth surfaces can alter saliva in various ways. We investigated whether salivary parameters were affected by elimination of existing active dental caries in 99 children (age 6-12 years) with...
The aim of this study was to compare saliva flow and protein composition induced using five basic taste stimulations between natural and bioengineered salivary glands.
Salivary measures have emerged in bio-behavioral research that are easy-to-collect, minimally invasive, and relatively inexpensive biologic markers of stress. This article we present the steps for col...
Purpose: To quantify changes in pH, buffering capacity and hydrogen carbonate, phosphate, protein and urea concentrations of stimulated saliva which occur during a 30-min measurement delay after saliv...
Saliva contains many defense factors and plays a key role in oral metabolism. Salivary calcium, due to its affinity to be readily taken up by plaque, is an important factor not only with regard to the...
This study will follow patients with salivary gland dysfunction to identify the long-term course of this disorder and its effects on the mouth, oral function, and overall health. Saliva is...
This study will examine saliva samples from healthy volunteers and patients with various diseases to learn more about how disease affects the mouth and salivary glands. It will use a metho...
The aim of this report was to evaluate the unstimulated whole saliva flow in patients with head and neck cancers during and after the exclusive radiotherapy with an association of lauryl-d...
This study will examine whether the experimental drug AdhAQP1 can increase salivary flow in patients whose parotid glands have been exposed to therapeutic radiation for treatment of head a...
The investigators questioned whether patients with dry mouth complaints display any reduction in residual saliva coating the gingiva and other selected mucosal surfaces. We further intende...
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.
Any of the ducts which transport saliva. Salivary ducts include the parotid duct, the major and minor sublingual ducts, and the submandibular duct.
Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).
The discharge of saliva from the SALIVARY GLANDS that keeps the mouth tissues moist and aids in digestion.
Presence of small calculi in the terminal salivary ducts (salivary sand), or stones (larger calculi) found in the larger ducts.