Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
Blood-sucking leeches have been used for medical purposes in humans for hundreds of years. Accordingly, one of the most prominent species has been named Hirudo medicinalis by Carl Linne in 1758. Feeding on vertebrate blood poses some serious problems to blood-sucking ectoparasites, as they have to penetrate the body surface of the host and to suppress the normal reactions of the host to such injuries (swelling, pain, inflammation) to remain undetected during the feeding period. Furthermore, the parasites have to take measures to inhibit the normal reactions in host tissues to blood vessel damage, namely hemostasis and blood coagulation (platelet aggregation and activation, activation of thrombin and formation of fibrin clots). During evolution, leeches have acquired the ability to control these processes in their hosts by transferring various bioactive substances to the host. These substances are supposedly produced in unicellular salivary gland cells and injected into the wound at the feeding site through tiny salivary ductule openings in the jaws that the leech uses to slice open the host body surface and to cut blood vessels in the depth of the wound. This review summarizes current knowledge about the salivary gland cells and the biological effects of individual saliva components as well as hints to the potential usefulness of some of these compounds for medical purposes.
Animal Physiology and Biochemistry, Zoological Institute, Ernst Moritz Arndt-University, Biotechnikum, Walther Rathenau-Strasse 49 a, 17489, Greifswald, Germany, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Die Naturwissenschaften
Saliva has a broad diagnostic potential which can be used for detection many pathological conditions including renal dysfunction. In saliva can be measured concentration of urea and creatinine as well...
Salivary amylase is a glucose-polymer cleavage enzyme that is produced by the salivary glands. It comprises a small portion of the total amylase excreted, which is mostly made by the pancreas. Amylase...
This study addresses gaps in our understanding about the validity and utility of using salivary adiponectin to index serum adiponectin levels. Matched blood and saliva samples were collected on a sing...
Cancer is the second most common cause of death in the USA. Its symptoms are often not specific and absent, until the tumors have already metastasized. Therefore, there is an urgent demand for develop...
Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is an autosomal inherited disease caused by deficiency of the third enzyme in the heme biosynthetic pathway, porphobilinogen deaminase. The clinical course of the di...
The purpose of this study is to obtain experimental data on the possible changes that saliva may suffer when brought to low-level laser therapy protocols for analgesia in the masseter musc...
In tuberculosis patients, salivary concentrations will be compared to plasma/serum concentrations of several anti-tuberculosis drugs. If salivary concentrations correctly represent blood c...
This study will follow patients with salivary gland dysfunction to identify the long-term course of this disorder and its effects on the mouth, oral function, and overall health. Saliva is...
This study will examine saliva samples from healthy volunteers and patients with various diseases to learn more about how disease affects the mouth and salivary glands. It will use a metho...
Oral complications during and after cancer treatment are common. A key role in maintaining oral health plays saliva. In the last decade numerous studies have investigated immunological bio...
The discharge of substances from the blood supply via diffusion into the SALIVA from the ORAL MUCOSA or from the SALIVARY GLANDS.
Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.
Any of the ducts which transport saliva. Salivary ducts include the parotid duct, the major and minor sublingual ducts, and the submandibular duct.
Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).
The discharge of saliva from the SALIVARY GLANDS that keeps the mouth tissues moist and aids in digestion.
An anesthesiologist (US English) or anaesthetist (British English) is a physician trained in anesthesia and perioperative medicine. Anesthesiologists are physicians who provide medical care to patients in a wide variety of (usually acute) situations. ...
Anything that breaks the skin is a wound because when the skin is broken, there's a risk of germs getting into the body and causing an infection. Follow and track Wound Care News on BioPortfolio: Wound Car...
Biological therapy involves the use of living organisms, substances derived from living organisms, or laboratory-produced versions of such substances to treat disease. Some biological therapies for cancer use vaccines or bacteria to stimulate the body&rs...