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Introduction: Triamcinolone acetonide (TA) is a steroidal drug that has been widely administered intravitreally for retinal and choroidal conditions. Safety of steroidal products for intraocular use is essential because of their risk of ocular adverse events. This review comprehensively discusses the safety of intravitreal administration of TA. Areas covered: This paper analyzes the mechanisms of action and key pharmacokinetic attributes and provides a discussion of the main clinical trials investigating clinical applications of intravitreal TA. The safety of intravitreal TA is evaluated through a search of the Medline database from 1980 to 2011. The most relevant literature on the safety of intravitreal TA is also discussed. Expert opinion: The complications of intravitreal TA therapy include secondary ocular hypertension in about 20 ? 40% of eyes, steroid-induced cataract in about 15 ? 20% of cases and postinjection infectious endophthalmitis and pseudoendophthalmitis in less than 1%. TA is an effective drug for various retinal and choroidal diseases when delivered intravitreally. It may imply an off-label use and it may be associated with ocular adverse events. Intravitreal TA is not associated with significant systemic safety risks.
University of Udine, Department of Ophthalmology , P.le S. Maria della Misericordia, 33100 Udine , Italy firstname.lastname@example.org.
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Name: Expert opinion on drug safety
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An esterified form of TRIAMCINOLONE. It is an anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid used topically in the treatment of various skin disorders. Intralesional, intramuscular, and intra-articular injections are also administered under certain conditions.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Removal of a drug from the market due to the identification of an intrinsic property of the drug that results in a serious risk to public health.
Measurable biological parameters that serve for drug development, safety and dosing (DRUG MONITORING).
Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.
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