Unexplained fever after bilateral superficial cervical block in children undergoing cochlear implantation: an observational study.
Summary of "Unexplained fever after bilateral superficial cervical block in children undergoing cochlear implantation: an observational study."
In an effort to decrease postoperative opioid requirements, intraoperative bilateral superficial cervical plexus block (BSCPB) was recently adopted for all our children undergoing general anesthesia for bilateral simultaneous cochlear implantation (BSiCI). Several cases of early postoperative fever were noted after the adoption of BSCPB. Our aim was to determine if an association exists between BSCPB and early postoperative fever in children undergoing BSiCI. As a secondary outcome, we studied the efficacy of BSCPB in altering postoperative analgesic requirements.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 91 consecutive children who underwent BSiCI. The series included 34 patients who received BSCPB (Block Group) and 57 patients who did not receive BSCPB (No-block Group).
The median age (range) was 15.4 months (eight months - 15 yr). A significant association was found between BSCPB and postoperative fever (P = 0.006). Eighteen (19.7%) children developed fever in the first 24 hr after surgery (Block Group: 12/34 [35%]; No-block Group: 6/57 [11%]; P = 0.006). The Block Group was 4.8 times more likely to develop early postoperative fever after adjusting for other variables (P = 0.004). The Block Group spent more days in hospital after surgery compared with the No-block Group (P = 0.043). Other vital signs showed no major deviation from the normal ranges, and daily physical examinations revealed no obvious source of infection in children who developed postoperative fever.
Bilateral superficial cervical plexus block may increase the risk of postoperative fever in children undergoing BSiCI. In this series, BSCPB was associated with a longer hospital admission. The etiology of the fever is undetermined, although it can be hypothesized that BSCPB resulted in unintended block of the phrenic nerves leading to diaphragmatic paralysis, atelectasis, and early postoperative fever in young children.
Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Canadian journal of anaesthesia = Journal canadien d'anesthesie
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22072060
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12630-011-9607-2
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome
An acute, febrile, mucocutaneous condition accompanied by swelling of cervical lymph nodes in infants and young children. The principal symptoms are fever, congestion of the ocular conjunctivae, reddening of the lips and oral cavity, protuberance of tongue papillae, and edema or erythema of the extremities.
Sudden Infant Death
The abrupt and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant under one year of age, remaining unexplained after a thorough case investigation, including performance of a complete autopsy, examination of the death scene, and review of the clinical history. (Pediatr Pathol 1991 Sep-Oct;11(5):677-84)
Autonomic Nerve Block
Interruption of sympathetic pathways, by local injection of an anesthetic agent, at any of four levels: peripheral nerve block, sympathetic ganglion block, extradural block, and subarachnoid block.
A network of nerve fibers originating in the upper four cervical spinal cord segments. The cervical plexus distributes cutaneous nerves to parts of the neck, shoulders, and back of the head, and motor fibers to muscles of the cervical spinal column, infrahyoid muscles, and the diaphragm.
Impaired conduction of cardiac impulse that can occur anywhere along the conduction pathway, such as between the SINOATRIAL NODE and the right atrium (SA block) or between atria and ventricles (AV block). Heart blocks can be classified by the duration, frequency, or completeness of conduction block. Reversibility depends on the degree of structural or functional defects.
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